Tuesday, 5 May 2015

Land Law




Land Law
Compare and contrast how mortgagees and landlords can repossess property in situations of default by the mortgagor or tenant. Discuss whether you think any difference is justified.
In the Landlord Tenant Act, the tenants have the legal liability of repairing their flats and the landlord is under no obligation to do the same. This however is restricted to the fact that the landlord did not provide any legal ramifications and liability on the covenant with the tenant. In the occurrence that the landlord agreed to undertake some duties in the course of the lease, the tenant is under no obligation to repair prats of the building that maybe damaged. If the lift is not working or the stairs are damaged, it is the obligation of the landlord to ensure that the same is repaired. If not, the tenant can take the necessary legal steps that would end up in their favour regarding on how the facts are presented and the terms of the lease agreement.
The landlord is legally bound to undertake due diligence and ensure that services towards the building are undertaken. Such services include water and lighting. This is because, the tenant cannot be hold responsible for the collective damage of services that affects almost everyone in an apartment block. The lease agreements are very specific on the duties of each of the parties involved. An example of such regulations is that tenants are always obliged to use the building or the flat based on the stipulation of the agreements. Bright, (2007) states that if a client leases an apartment for personal use then later turns the same for commercial business, the landlord can cancel the lease agreement and the tenant is not liable to any of the damages accrued. In addition, some landlords are very specific regarding what activities should be undertaken in an apartment block or a commercial building.
Landlords having granted a lease agreement to the tenant should minimize the level of interference in what the tenant does. Such interference should only occur if the situation warrants for any interference. The law is very clear on who takes the blame in relation to any conflict that may arise from an agreement between a landlord and a tenant. In most cases, landlords fail to issue any warranty regarding the repair of any broken facilities of the building in what is known as ‘let the lessee beware’ (caveat lessee). However, there is a limited assumption in this case where the law only implies and does not state on the situation of a building during tenancy (Smith v. Marrable).The implication here is that the landlord is aware of the state of the building during before the tenancy and any changes or damages to the building are held against the tenant.
In most cases, the courts are aware that the tenants are in no position to negotiate effectively with the landlords owing to the demand for housing. In Liverpool City Council v. Irwin, which mainly concerned the liability of the landlord regarding maintenance, the judges were ‘reasonable’ to discredit past precedence in the same area and use reason to rule in favour of the tenant. However, there were still some judges who dissented with the ruling saying that the law must be ‘implied’ in cases involving the liability of the landlord to the tenant. However, tenancy issues are much complicated. Assuming that the lease of a building expires after 999 years, it is very likely that none of the parties involved will be around to experience the completion of the lease. During this period, a lot of this will have happened. The building might have changed ownership several; times bringing in a new landlord and a new tenant who were not party to the original lease agreement. Such a situation bring in serious legal complications regarding the liability of the new landlord or the new tenant and how the said parties can execute any of the terms agreed upon on the original lease.
The Landlord and Tenant (Covenants) Act 1995 implies that provides a clear distinction of what are regarded as new and old leases. The distinction between the two is that both leases offer discrete obligations and liability on new parties introduced to the lease, pursuant to the Ac, a lease may have aa covenant where the tenant restricts the landlord from executing preference actions on the lase. For an absolute covenant, the tenant is legally bound not to sublet a building pursuant to the lease agreement. However, the alienation of the lease can be altered to disqualify the absolute powers of the landlord and introduce a new agreement saying that the tenant can only sublet with prior agreement with the landlord. New leases however offer some lifeline for the tenants. The new leases have what is called qualifying lease that seeks to compel landlords to allow the tenants sublet a building if there was a prior agreement on the same. The landlord however can impose restrictions on the tenancy agreement if the conditions set to impose indicate that the landlord is not being unreasonably withholding consent.
Tenants can forfeit a building if any of the pre-set conditions in the lease agreement are violated. Such violations include failure to pay rent, agreements in relation to repair of buildings, subletting or selling a building contrary or without the consent of the landlord and alteration of the premises. Most of the agreements contained in the lease agreement are mostly signed by the tenant in accordance to the situation at hand. At this point, the landlord is considered as having the upper hand in setting the rules and regulations regarding the covenant. However, the landlords themselves can also violate some of the covenants contained in a lease agreement thus allowing the tenant to sell a building. Such violation include the obligation of repair and to insure.
Discuss the extent to which the Variation of Trusts Act 1958 mirrors the power of adult beneficiaries to vary the trust under Saunders v Vautier.


The major rule in trusteeship is that the settler’s wishes are supposed to be executed to the latter. However, there are various circumstances that may arise and necessitate the variation of the settler’s wishes but under the consideration that such a variation does not necessarily warrant a court process. In general law, it is assumed that the trust instrument is not in place to confer powers to undesirable or relatively parties not involved in the original process but rather to allow discretionally powers among the trustees.
The rule in Saunders v Vautier
The ruling in Saunders v Vautier allowed trustees to effect any variation in the absence of any express powers as provided by the statutory law. The ruling argued that provided that all the trustees are adults sui juris and the fact that they have collectively agreed to settle amongst themselves the trust property, the process can be carried out if at all there is no objection from an individual within the trust unit. In the Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996,(6,7) dictates that the trust of land is not just inclusive of the material property that is land but rather, any proceeds that maybe derived from the sale of the said land. This acts also conveys extra legal rights for the subdivision of trust land including conveying the partitioned land to the beneficiaries. Now, in law it is assumed that there is bound to be some conflict between the trustees and the beneficiaries. Matthews, (2006) argues that in such situation, the law is very clear on who the beneficiaries should complain to in the occurrence that there is a complaint against the trustees.
The application of the Saunders v Vautier can be seen to imply and create precedence in relation to how trustee of a trust should be defined and allowed to share the assets. In simple terms, if an individual decides to leave his grandchildren who are all alive at the time of his death £10,000 each, the trustee is allowed to hold the money for all the beneficiaries until they are of legal age as expressed in the trust. This implies that the grandchildren cannot compete under the legal structure to hold the amount before the trust can be executed. For the trust rule to be applied, the trustees must attain a certain age as dictated in the trust. The concept of concept of consent however comes in when particularly dealing with assets and property. The consent between all the beneficiaries can subvert the court process and agree amongst themselves to execute the trust.
Southgate v Sutton [2011] EWCA Civ 637 the Court of Appeal (Mummery, Smith and Wilson LJJ)
In Southgate v Sutton, the Court of overturned an earlier decision by a judge from a lower court that had granted the trustees to create a sub fund which was considered contrary to the legal provision that regulate the trust instrument. The trustees had applied for powers to create a sub-fund despite most of the trustees having interest in income over all the trust assets. The judges ruled that by creating a sub fund, the trustees who earned interest over all the trust assets were subverting the course of the trust instrument and the legal ramifications that would arise from the fact that some of the trustees resided in the U.S while others were in the U.K. The overall ruling was that the power to create a sub fund was not interest and therefore the court had no power to create the same.
One of the major characteristics of trusts is that they are subject to regulatory authorities as conferred by the law. Ina addition, trust are considered as liability to a country owing to the fact that they are not liable to any tax remits despite the heavy allowances that is charged by most trust organization. This is the major reason why it is considered extremely beneficial to have an authority that governs and regulates trusts. “Trustees that are under charitable trusts are under Charity Commission where the charitable trustees are required by law to submit their annual reports” (Pearce et al, 2010). The commissioners of the Charity Mission are obligated ay the law to discipline any trustees found to have acted contrary to what the law dictates. In addition, trusts are subject to the occupational pension trusts that regulate retirement pensions that are remitted by trusts under this category. What is important to note is that trusts are very flexible legal devices that are at the discretion of the employers in such a way that the employers are able to choose the trustees themselves. This means that employers have obsolete control of the trustees and trust but this does not mean that chances of fraud are zero.
References
Bright, S. (2007). Landlord and Tenant Law in Context. Hart Pub
Matthews, P. (2006). The Comparative Importance of the Rule in Saunders v. Vautier. LQR, 122, 266.
Liverpool City Council v. Irwin
Pearce, R., Stevens, J., & Barr, W. (2010). The law of trusts and equitable obligations. Oxford University    Press.
Smith v. Marrable
Southgate v Sutton [2011] EWCA Civ 637 the Court of Appeal (Mummery, Smith and Wilson LJJ)

The Movement of Enlightenment in Europe from 1650-1780

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The Movement of Enlightenment in Europe from 1650-1780
The age of enlightenment was a period in early modern history where western societies made a shift from a religious based authority to one of scientific reason. The age embodied tremendous social and intellectual advancements. Centred in the 18th Century, the enlightenment intellectual movement was one that had its roots in philosophy and more importantly within the western philosophy. Despite the international scope of the movement it was more centred in France, which had assumed an unprecedented leadership in European intellectual life. It is a movement that marked a rise of the western influence in Europe from 1650-1780. Great thinkers in France, Britain and all over Europe began questioning traditional authority and started embracing the notion that humanity can be improved through rational change. European politics, science, philosophy, and communications were re-oriented during the course of the enlightenment movement.
As a result of the enlightenment movement, Europe’s sense of identity was defined and shaped. Through the movement, numerous inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions, essays, and books were produced. Since there existed no unified Enlightenment, this essay will focus on the movement of Enlightenment in Europe from 1650-1780. This historical time frame existed when Isaac Newton published his Principia Mathematica and John Locke, who published his work: essay concerning Human Understanding. The two works formed the basis in a scientific, mathematical and philosophical sense for the enlightenment’s major advances. The essay will also focus on how the enlightenment movement shaped Europe’s sense of identity in religion, science, politics, social science, and imaginative literature.
Origins of the Enlightenment movement
The movement can be regarded as the third and the last phase of the process by which European thought and intellectual life was modernized in the early modern period. What preceded the movement were the stages of Renaissance and Reformation. Its relation to the two stages was relatively paradoxical since the Enlightenment represented their cancellation and fulfilment. The enlightenment marked the moment that the spell of the Renaissance which was the conviction of absolute superiority of ancient times over modern civilization was broken (ushistory.org).
The revolt against cultural and intellectual authority through the Enlightenment movement was very dramatic. As a result, the critique by the Protestants against the Catholic Church for its exploitation of its charges through ideological delusion was extended to Christian religion. Other than religion, the Enlightenment marked the period at which the most fundamental extreme sources of intellectual authority in Greco-Roman, Europe, and Judeo-Christian were overthrown. What made this intellectual liberation possible was the fact that, the primary thinkers of the Enlightenment were clear of the origins of their own set of ideas. These ideas could be traced back to the set of pioneers from the mid-seventeenth century. The founders had one thing in common in that they all had the idea of the willingness to depart from the tradition in one domain of thought after another. The result for this was the development of the most advanced though of the 17th Century which was popularized in the course of the eighteenth Century.
The Impact of Enlightenment in Europe
            During the late 17th Century and the early 18th Century, scientists like Isaac Newton began challenging the old order. Newton’s law of gravity and motion explained the world in a more natural law rather than a spiritual one beyond any spiritual force or being. On the other hand, Locke a writer made clear the point of changing a government that never protected natural rights of life, liberty, and property. People began to question the existence of God who could predestine human beings to eternal condemnation and put into place a tyrant for a king (ushistory.org). Through these ideas, Europe could be forever changed since the ideas formed its sense of identity.
American intellectuals also read these ideas. Religious leaders began to change the old outdated ideas and positions. An emphasis on similarities rather than the differences between the Anglican Church and the Puritan Congregationalists began. The Massachusetts minister who was a strong advocate on existence of witches advocated for the use of science to immunize citizens against Smallpox. Harvard ministers also became very liberal such that there was the creation of Yale College which was founded with an aim of retaining the old Calvinist ideas. By the end of the Century, England ministers became so Unitarian that they started doubting the divinity of Christ.
The old way of life was defined through superstition, absolute submission to authority, and an angry God. However, the enlightened movement brought in a new way of thinking that championed the accomplishments of humankind. Individuals did not have to feel desperate since Science and reason could be a source of happiness and progress. Kings no longer ruled through divine right but on the basis that they had a obligation and a duty towards their subjects. Europeans have since pondered through the implications of the enlightenment movement. The paragraphs that follow will explain the main ideas behind the enlightened movement and how Europe was defined by those events and ideas.
Ideas behind the Enlightenment Movement
            Prior to the enlightenment period religion was the dominant political force across Europe (Israel). The Catholic Church had established tremendous spiritual authority during the middle ages. Such authority is evidenced through the powerful investiture controversy that existed in the 11th Century. Despite the force that came with the enlightenment movement monarchs still tried to legitimise their authority using religion. However, the age of reason challenged the supremacy of religion in both the political and social life of the people of Europe. Hostility towards established forms of religion is regarded as the most commonly associated idea of the enlightenment. Conversely, the movement is characterized as where modern paganism has its roots. A majority of those who adhered to the movement were wholly averse to the idea of theism. They criticized the belief in miracles and all forms of divine intervention, the status accorded to the Bible and all claims associated with Christ’s divinity. Ardent followers of the movement were of the opinion that, Catholic and Protestant traditional churches were forms of institutional oppression and exploitation (Israel). Generally, the enlightened opinion of the great thinkers opted for the compromise of natural religion. Their opinion received a deal of sincere devotion in many different forms. Therefore, the enlightenment movement played a significant role in shaping the modern day religious identity in Europe and the whole country’s identity in general.
Through demotion of religion in Europe by the Enlightenment movement, there was promotion of Science (Israel). Natural philosophy as dictated by Newton began to spread across Europe based on the fact that Mathematics was the new universal language. The thought of Aristotle referred to as the Aristotelian thought was replaced by better and more accurate observations. Scientists made efforts to explain phenomena’s rather than devising complex theories. In the field of medicine, the old idea of humours came to an end and medical practitioners developed numerous ways of looking at the body and physiology in functional ways. Theories in medicine were done away with as the discovery of the microscope aided the physicians in physiological ways of looking at the body. On the other hand, alchemy lost its touch in its mystical and occult symbolism where a majority of the alchemists became physicists and chemists. Astrology’s influence also declined as a result of the invention of the telescope and Newtonian Physics transforming form astrology to astronomy. Astronomy took a much pragmatic role in trying to explain the universe. The new approach to knowledge also paved way to industrial revolution where geologists and engineers started to find coal and metal ores in order to start mass production of goods.
The 17th Century saw a profound revolution in political thought. The revolution was marked by the emergence of the modern natural rights tradition of Locke, Hobbes, Grotius, and Pufendorf. A primary achievement during this era was popularizing and disseminating this tradition through summaries, translations, and commentaries. By the 18th Century, natural rights, state of nature, and civil society which were all encompassed in the natural rights tradition entered into the Enlightenment political thought. The thought embraced wholly the idea that, the only legitimate basis of political authority was consent. Locke was of the idea that authority is derived from the consent of the governed. Before that people had the notion of the divine right of kings where nobody except God or the Pope could tell what a king ought to do or should do. In the sense of political politics, a majority of the thinkers during the enlightenment embraced a monarch type of administration which is still the dominant state-form in Europe.
The enlightenment movement viewed Classical era of Rome and Greece as a model for contemporary life. People like Johann Winckelmann regarded ancient Greece as a place where male friendship was celebrated, nudity encouraged and the male form admired (Israel). The fascination of ancient Greece led to the production of homoerotic poetry as translation from Greek to European languages. During this age of enlightenment, there was an increased sexual frankness that saw the production of numerous Pornographic materials and works of erotic acts. The most notable pornographic work was by John Cleland which featured graphics of both male and female homosexuality. Sex was also introduced in many other genres, opening a new era of candidness in matters related to sex. In addition, numerous cities during the enlightenment started acting upon homoerotic ideals. Particularly, male prostitution networks prospered in London and Paris.
Through imaginative literature, enlightenment ideas were expressed and communicated. Poetry, plays, and fiction were the primary vehicles for the expression of these ideas. In Europe, the torchbearers of enlightenment literature and philosophy were Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Jean was a strong advocate for social reforms of all kinds who invented the autobiography as it is known today. However, his most remarkable work was Emile a piece of non-fiction that argued for extensive and liberal education as a means for creating good citizenship. Jean’s work would remain influential in Europe and the entire world even after his passing. Voltaire on the other hand employed dry wit and sarcasm to entertain his readers while still making a conviction argument for reforms. Voltaire is considered as the pen name of Francois-Marie Arouet. The pen name shielded him from persecution which his writings strongly advocated for and encouraged. Voltaire used the terms intolerant and backward when referring to the churches during that time portraying his harsh criticism in his work. Voltaire and Jean are well-known for their works of literature that promulgated Enlightenment philosophy for the sake of making the world a better and fairer place. The fairness that exists in Europe today was shaped through literature works and ideas by writers and poets such as Jean and Voltaire who contributed to Europe’s sense of identity.
In conclusion, it is clear that the enlightenment have changed Europe and the entire world, just as much as the Reformation and the Renaissance before it. It has defined Europe across all fields including; religion, science, politics, social science, and imaginative literature. However, the change has not been easy since it has been interwoven in intended and unintended consequences. There is still no sign that the enlightenment is over unlike the Renaissance and the Reformation periods. The era of intellectual modernization through the enlightenment movement is far from over since there exist no intellectual movement that has yet to surpass it. The movement has attracted massive support and advocacy whose aim is to defend its political and intellectual legacy. The most famous promoter of the enlightenment movement today is Jurgen Habermas who has constantly urged the Left to embrace what he terms as the unfinished business of the enlightenment. Kant who is one of the great thinkers during the period answered the question of whether we live in an enlightened age by saying that we do not live in an enlightened age but in an age of enlightenment. Therefore, more change and a new Europe could be coming.


Works Cited
Israel, Jonathan I. Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750. New York: Oxford New York, 2001.
ushistory.org. “The Impact of Enlightenment in Europe.” 2015. 23 April 2015 <http://www.ushistory.org/us/7a.asp&gt;.

An Ethical Issue Faced by Engineers




An Ethical Issue Faced by Engineers
Introduction
Every profession is guided by the set of ethical norms that every member has to conform to so that efficient operations can be ascertained. If the moral values that are harmoniously formulated are not abided to, it leads to the failure of the entire profession. Thus, it is vital for every form of industry to enact rules that will govern its operations. For, instance, the engineering profession has some code of ethics that every member has to comply to, as long as they are affiliated with the institution. Such ethical issues aids in making the professionals effective in the way they make their service delivery to the society. Further, they help to build a healthy working relationship with the professionals. In this regard, this essay will examine one of these ethical procedures that every engineer has to face and comply with, along with executing his duties. As such, this will be the whistleblowing whereby any engineer is required to report any client or employer that they deal with, to the relevant authority. Notably, this will happen in a scenario where the client fails to comply with the directives that are given out by the engineer. It will happen in this way since the chief objective of the profession is to serve all the people efficiently.
Relevance of the moral value to the profession
The technical ability that is an associate of the engineering professionals makes them vital members of any given society (Harris 169). Notably, by use of their skills, they can foretell the impacts of undertaking a particular procedure. Thus, it is crucial for the client to give due regards to the directives that are given by the engineer. People in this profession are trained to handle the complicated issues that sometimes may be impossible to the eyes of the society. In some cases, a misunderstanding may arise in regard to how a particular task ought to be carried out. Several of these cases may encompass the cost of installation of an individual program for the case of software engineering. An engineer has a broad knowledge that concerns his field of specialization. It is this vast knowledge that enables the engineer to perform their tasks diligently. Once an engineer makes a projection that affects a given project, it concerns the owner of the entire project to handle the issue with the engineer (Baura 59). Sometimes, the projection may be in terms of the cost involved to oversee the completion of the given project. In some cases, the client may intend to use cheaper applications that may sometimes contravene the intention of the engineer due to the technical issues that may be involved.
Notably, engineers have the knowledge of the best applications that are recommended by the entire association. Therefore, the engineer knows the impacts of failure to comply with the formulated provisions. If the engineer fails to follow the set protocols that encompass the operations in the profession, he or she will be answerable in a situation where a hazardous occasion faces the society. Due to this, he or she has to enforce the compliance with the set protocols or else involve the relevant authority. It is the involvement of the competent authority that will enable efficiency in the entire profession (Richard and Kristin 241). For instance, if the approximated cost of building a particular building using the standard materials that are recommended by the institution is US $ 8 billion, it should be that way as this will be a reflection of the price of the requirements in the market. At various occasions, the client may opt to make the purchase of the requirements without the consent of the engineer with a motive of reducing the cost that is involved. In such a case, the engineer should do an extensive investigation that pertains the way the purchase of the requirements is done. Otherwise, if the entire project proves to be unsuccessful, the onus will be placed on the engineer who supervised the operations. Hence, the engineer has to follow each procedure so that he or she can be answerable to any anomaly that emanates from the whole process. One will understand that if the outcome of the operations affects the society, the engineer has to counter the allegations that are accused of him or her in the court of law. Innately, it is only possible if the engineer followed the set ethical procedure while the operations were on their due course.
Evidently, this will take the place at the court of law where the ethical systems are a component of the formulation of the judgment. Interestingly, the ethical systems are well known to every engineer who is licensed to offer services to the society. In a situation where the engineer fails to follow the set procedures knowingly, such an engineer will be entitled to a severe punishment that may act as a lesson to others who may be the victims of the same issue in the future. Notably, it will deter them from committing the same offense in the future. An offense of this caliber may encompass the application of punitive measures that as extremely severe to the affected person (Whitbeck 94). In view of this, the lesson taught by the engineer under consideration will lead to the conformity to the provisions of the law by the other engineers. As such, ethical values help in making the profession trustworthy by the public. Hence, it is crucial for the members of this profession to adhere to the set procedures for the purpose of keeping the proper name of the field. Otherwise, it will tarnish the name of the organization that will render it futile to the eyes of the society.
In principle, the fact that each engineer has to be answerable to the fault that result out of his line of duty make each engineer to have the sense of focus as they execute their duties to the people in the society that they work. The engineer is aware of the necessary steps that he or she should undertake in case he or she fails to create an understanding with his or her client. In fact, the society is sometimes unaware of the protocols that exist in the engineering profession. Thus, it is the role of the engineer under the considerations to take the role of creating the awareness to the clients. Consequently, it will make them have an easier time when they encounter such customers in the course of executing their duties.

Ethical ssues Faced by Engineers (Research Proposal)




Ethical Issue Faced by Engineers
The engineering profession has some moral values that should be followed by every professional who makes an entry into the field. Notably, every engineer has to be licensed so that he or she can be able to start the operations in the field. Unless an engineer is licensed, he or she cannot gain an access to the profession since this procedure is necessary. Principally, it is this process that makes it possible to enact the moral values that every engineer has to comply with, as long as they are in the profession. In this regard, one of the ethical value that the engineering profession is faced with, is the issue of whistleblowing, that is; an engineer whose directives fails to be followed by the employer or the client is obliged to report the matter to the relevant authority so that appropriate steps may be considered. In essence, this will help to reduce the hazardous issues that are associated with the failure to conform to the engineer’s directives. In view of this, this proposal will seek to discuss the vast of the aforementioned ethical issue.
Fundamentally, one will reckon that engineering profession encompasses the use of technical skills that helps to figure out the outcomes of implementations of a projected plan. If the course of the execution of the plan fails to follow the directive that is given by the engineer, it implies that there is an imminent danger. Thus, an engineer has the mandate to report the matter to the relevant authority for considerations to be done. The authority will examine the critical details of the case that is presented and then give its final judgment in regards to the subject matter. Consequently, it will help to protect the interests of the two sides along with protecting the interests of the community.

Angolan Horror




Abstract
This research paper is about The Angola Horror, a book about one of the worst railroad tragedies of the 19th century. Different aspects of the tragedy like what caused the accident, response from concerned stakeholders and its effects are covered. The paper uses the book itself as the secondary source of information and various analyzes. All arguments are in line with the authors’ intentions.
Introduction
On the 18th of December, 1867 tragedy struck as the Buffalo and Erie’s Railroad’s New York Express derailed. Charity Vogel makes a historical and factual publication of the eastbound railroad tragedy in The Angola Horror. There were many effects of the aftermath that are documented in the book as shocking details were revealed and effects of the derailment. Effects on victims, witnesses, rescuers and the entire country were of a magnitude never experienced before. Vogel brings readers close to the sad experience as they can place themselves onboard the train. An insight of how it felt to be one of the eighty-seven people who perished brings some relationship and closeness. Daily practices that might have led to the events that transpired on that day of derailment are all evident in The Angola Horror (Randy, 2013).
Tragedy has a serious implication on how citizens socialize. When the sad moment came, all Americans were united more than ever as they called for significant reforms in different sectors. Technological advancement was the pillar of their pleas with the maintenance of a safe environment for adequate innovation being some secondary concerns. From the tragedy, it can be concluded that technology was in question. More needed to be done because advancement in technology in a certain area often leads to an almost equivalent lagging behind in other areas.
Charity Vogel gives a true-to-life and gripping story of the event and what unfolded through it all. She also reveals the fatalities who were involved in the accident in the book. Her story is a combination of sub-stories of the specific characters (some unknown) that were caught up in the disaster, creek ravine fiery scenes, and the train’s fateful run. The book has legislative, legal and journalistic search for the numerous questions asked. Her focus is on what happened to New York Express why the events unfolded as they did. The Angola Horror has a combination of coinciding events as relatives and loved ones of the deceased have their limits of endurance stretched. Drastic stories of the experiences after the disaster are also elaborated. In a broader context, Vogel sets the pace of various under various subjects such as public policy and associated legislation. The technology of railroads, the culture of print media, death together with subsequent mourning during the Victorian Period and stakeholder correlation during the post-Civil War era are a vital concern in the book. The morale of Americans as a nation is evident in the book. Just nine years after the Angola Horror a train crashed in Ashtabula, Ohio under the same circumstances. The following accident served as a chilling coda to The Angola Horror.
The Social Impacts Angola Horror occurred barely two years after the end of Civil War. It had severe social implications as people were adjusting to new ways of living and how to relate to each other. By then sensitivity to death was at its peak mainly because Civil War left American Citizens with a sense of anxiety and endurance. Apart from the war it was a reminder of how life was fragile just when people were about to get some normalcy in life (Randy, Angola Horror Review, 2013). Railroads were so important during that time when people were healing scars from the deadly war. It meant frequent visitation to see loved ones across states, better contacts and good business as well. People who lived in conditions isolated by the weather relied on railroads the most. After the tragedy, mobility was perceived differently as people thought of exposure to fatal accidents and permanent injuries, just like war. Americans became selfless and were ready to give up their lives for their fellows. They reached out in numbers to help with the recovery efforts. Being a witness to charred remains of train unidentified victims, brutal injuries and train wreck was a psychological torture to many. It was one of the fiercest moments when the need for social justice was dire as the government was put to test on how well it can guarantee safety. Although the author does not mention the different five grief stages as they were described by counselors, the atmosphere created by Angola Horror told it all. People were in denial as relatives, and workmates, neighbors, friends and acquaintances of those on board the eastbound train never wanted to imagine their friends were either dead or seriously injured. The railroad company received most of the anger even as their employees felt guilty and responsible. Some employees were opting to quit their railroad jobs. Eventually, the horrible derailment was accepted and realized. The purpose of The Angola Horror is evident all through the book. Charity Vogel exposes connection Americans had with the derailment and failures in various institutions. Her arguments are evidence-based as she points particular loopholes and shortcomings in the railroad company, for example, and blame games that transpired after the tragedy. One of the strength of the book is that it has clear analyzes and in-depth scrutiny of events. After the Angola Horror, the central issue was a question of compensation. All civil lawsuits and public inquiries were all about reparations for the victims. Material interest could however not solve it all as judicial processes, and parliamentary sittings raised democratic government as the fundamental issue. So much was at stake considering the unwritten contract between the state and its citizens. People needed protection as the government was perceived to have neglected its people and chose profits. It was therefore not just a corporate responsibility but a disaster that needed a broad assessment and reassurance. With the absence of necessary and adequate public safety measures, Angola Horror would be reenacted over and over again. Public policy and political innovations remained unreliable and uncertain even as technological innovations avail challenges to people. Tragedies like Angola Horror need a comprehensive investigation with a detailed report on what happened. It is not the case as most studies focus on symptoms of a problem and not the root causes that always lead to recurring incidents. One of the prominent solutions that were developed after the derailment was patenting of the air braking system that was developed by George Westinghouse Jr. in 1869. The innovation was useful as it could stop a train within a fraction of the initial stopping time under the hand braking system. Different findings documented various causes of the derailment like broken wheel, differences in car wheel widths, the difference in track gauge widths, bent axle and deteriorating bridge. No final cause analysis was reported. The industry needed quality tools like reports on potential failures to save lives in future. The nineteenth century had many railroad accidents, and they were to Angola. The twentieth and twenty-first century have also seen disasters of different magnitudes such as Hurricane Katrina, Challenger Space Shuttle Explosion, World Trade Center Attacks, Boston Marathon bombing and John F. Kennedy assassination among others. There have been improvements in terms of response, but there is still room for more to be done. Conclusion
Vogel made her conclusion with an exciting message. She was not surprised at the occurrences at all. According to her technological advancements, was not all Americans needed as it would not be of any impact if systems that form a foundation for the improvements were not of equal measure. She also asserts that for a very long time Angola Horror had been the cause of changes in transport but the derailment has since been forgotten (Vogel, 2013). The final slap to unidentified victims of the accident was the failure on the government’s part to give them respectful memorial just like it was promised. Angola has not yet received due recognition yet there are numerous anniversary events for many people who passed away. Time heals wounds just like Angola victims have since been forgotten.

References

Randy, K. (2013). Angola Horror Review. In C. Vogel, The Angola Horror (pp. 5-15). New York: Cornel University Press.
Randy, K. (2013). Angola Horror Review. In C. Vogel, The Angola Horror (pp. 106-124). New York: Cornell University Press.
Vogel, C. (2013). The Angola Horror. New York: Cornell University Press.

Digestive System




Digestive System
The Mouth
Digestion starts in the mouth where amylase a salivary enzyme breaks down starch in carbohydrates into maltose. Lettuce contains high water content, small amounts of protein, fat and carbohydrates. Tomatoes contain vitamins, fiber and water. Cheese has low levels of carbohydrates, protein and fat. Onions have a fiber known as inulin. Ranch dressing contains lactose and is typically made of buttermilk. The pizza crust contains carbohydrates.
The Stomach
Once in the duodenum, the chyme is mixed with digestive secretions from the liver, pancreas and gallbladder. Amylase from the pancreatic juice further breaks down starch and glycogen into maltose and other disaccharides. Maltases, sucrases and lactases enzymes break the disaccharides to monosaccharides. The monosaccharides are absorbed in the intestinal epithelium to produce energy and are transported through the bloodstream to different cells in the body. Most proteins are digested in the stomach with the help of pepsin that breaks them into peptides. Pepperoni and cheese contain protein components. Other enzymes produced by the pancreas in the duodenum, the trypsin, elastase, and chymotrypsin reduce the proteins to even smaller peptides. Peptidases further break down the peptides into amino acids that are absorbed through the small intestines into the bloodstream. Olive oil helps in production of peptides which aid in absorption of nutrients.
The lingual lipase and gastric lipase aid the digestion of lipids in the stomach. The liver produces bile which helps in digestion of lipids. Vitamins are either lipid-soluble or water-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins can be absorbed directly from the intestines into the bloodstream. The fat-soluble vitamins absorption is similar to lipids

Importance of being Earnest




Importance of Being Earnest
Oscar Wilde, the writer of The Importance of Being Earnest, was most a peculiar character. This is present in his writings, particularly in the work as mentioned earlier. The Importance of Being Earnest uses unfamiliar circumstances and striking quips to produce a sense of humour that nearly all people enjoy.             The Importance of Being Earnest was almost a Victorian illustration of an incident of Seinfeld (Wilde and Alysia 374). The traits contained within regularly find themselves in the strange conditions, so strange that one can find them humorous. They even, at times, tend to signify instances in which one may find himself or herself involved. I chose to analyze the play through the Marxist lens, which focuses on class relationships. In essence, it was the standout procedure as the play’s social classes are continually being compared and viewed as the only thing of any importance when regarding marriage. For instance, in Act one, where Jack realizes “Gwendolyn loves the name Ernest”. He tries several ways to talk to her and find out if she could love him if his name were Jack. She deliberates the entire question to be putative and unimportant since she always knows him to be Ernest. The whole dialogue that occurs during the discussion has humorous pieces that add to the colourful nature of the play. Jack speaks one piece of the dialogue, where he says, “Gwendolyn, I must get christened at once imply, people ought to get married at once”; Wilde demonstrates how community would seem to show concern that pertains aspect of an individual, such as their name or affluence, rather than their trait (Wilde 324).             Next, when Algernon speaks to Cecily concerning their engagement. Cecily is aware that Algernon is a brother to Jack, “Ernest and has an affair with the name similar to that of Gwendolyn”. Algernon attempts to inquire, in a similar manner whether Cecily could love him if he bore another name, such as Algernon. “Cecily responds in a similar manner”. Wilde finds one piece to be humorous, and, as a result, includes it in the first act. He then decides to repeat a similar situation in the second Act of the play.             Another example of Wilde’s use of humour is in his witty remarks and epigrams. By using these devices, the character becomes coloured and helps to stabilize them well against others instead of forming a “flat”; appearance. “The most conspicuous figure that validates these qualities is Algernon, whose mastery of the story is impeccable”. In Act one, after Jack finishes a conversation with Lady Bracknell about wedding Gwendolyn, Lady Bracknell lives the room (Wilde 347). Jack has hardly a second to contemplate about the occasions when Algernon begins by frolicking the traditional Wedding March. Algernon, in a way, pieces the role of the bothersome younger brother, who complains and plays off one’s faults. Ironically, one learns later that Algernon is young brother to Jack.             Oscar Wilde, an Irish-born playwright, illustrates to someone who studies his works that customs are not always the best procedure. His writings were very favourable to the same people to which his repartee aims. With Wilde, “sarcasm mixed with dialogue in the right proportion proved to be the right medicine for the disorders of the community”. By creating the gentry the strength of his jokes and writing about their “problems”; Oscar Wilde proves that things do not always need to fit with tradition in order to be acceptable.
Works Cited
Oscar Wilde, Alyssa Harad. The Importance of Being Earnest and Other Plays. London: Simon and Schuster, 2005. Print.
Wilde, Oscar. Oscar Wilde Complete Works – The Importance of Being Earnest Picture of Dorian Gray Salome Ballad of Reading Gaol De Profundis An Ideal Husband Canterville Ghost A Woman of No Importance Happy Prince Lady Windermere’s Fan Soul of Man under Socialism Lord. Washington: AEB Publishing, 2011. Print.
Oscar Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest and Other Plays: Lady Windermere’s Fan; Salome; A Woman of No Importance; An Ideal Husband; The Importance of Being Earnest. London: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.

Influences on zombie figures



Influences on Zombie figures.

            The paper seeks to explain the development of the figure of the zombie and how the Night of the Living Dead reinvents it. The paper also analyzes the zombie as a representation of fear in people. 

            A zombie, according to the voodoo belief, is the supernatural power that enters and reanimates a dead body. The origin of the zombie idea is not easy to trace but it has gained popularity in the modern era. The popularity of the term zombie in the Western culture was due to its use as a metaphor to refer to people lacking consciousness and was a threat to social structures.    

Servicemen from America who returned from Haiti in the 1920’s and 1930’s have brought home the stories of mindless zombies, black magic and voodoo masters. The zombie stories penetrated the imagination of the American culture. The zombie represented both slave and slave rebellion (Thomas).   The Haitian zombie did not exude fear and was obedient and its purpose was to work as a slave. The fear was only for the power held by the creators of the zombies.    


Night of the living dead and reinventing of the zombie

            The film Night of the Living Dead that was released in 1968 was a reinvention of the zombie idea and a horror genre. The zombies in the movie are a combination of the zombie, vampire and werewolf. The living dead are shown to eat greedily like werewolves and also transmit a disease by bite like vampires. Unlike the previous stories on zombies, Romero’s movie acknowledges that there is no force from beyond but rather the enemy was the human themselves. The zombies in the movie are physically weak like humans and their strength was in numbers. The movie also provided a scientific explanation why the corpses returned, that resulted from radiation from a spacecraft that had crashed.

            The zombie characters exhibit no moral responsibility whereby they take part in activities such as cannibalism, paricide and incest. The irresponsible acts of the zombies shattered family and personal relations taboos held by the American culture. The movie has scenes of zombies eating their victims and a daughter killing her mother by stabbing and eating her father. The fact that all the film characters die in the end shows that humans are not perfect and are all vulnerable. The zombie idea symbolizes different fears in the American Culture. In the Haitian voodoo zombie stories they represented a loss of free will as well as consciousness. The control of the zombies by their master indicated them been used as slaves. The Night of the Living Dead  is a depressing reminder of own mortality that humans try to outrightly deny. The movie is also an illustration of the fear of humans for the said apocalyptic destruction. The zombies in the movie multiply by transmitting their victims through biting resulting to the victim turning into a zombie. The zombie idea may be seen to measure the amount of anxiety and stress in the American society (Dotson).


The zombie as a representation of the fears of Americans

            The zombie in several ways can be seen to represent the fears of the middle-class Americans. Zombies have in recent years evolved to diverse characters in films, TV shows, novels and video games. The zombies are full of symbolism that can be analyzed in different ways.  The product of the entertainment industry directly relates to what people believe in, fear and love in the society where they live. Therefore the rise in popularity of zombies can be connected to the increasing social fears and anxieties. The fears could be in the collapse of social order, pandemics, and untrustworthy authority.  Initially in the Haitian zombie stories they represented slavery while the recent time they may symbolize the fears of the working class revolution. The zombie character has no identity and those fighting the zombies are the humans. The fantasy shows the need for survival in the modern times. The unemployed and poor in the American society may be seen to be a threat to the middle class. The revolting of the unemployed is a reason for alarm to the upper classes that create fear. The only way to maintain the pride of the middle class is by protecting with all means the owned wealth.

            In the film Night of Living Dead the black protagonist was able to survive an ambush, towards the end of the movie, by the zombies. Unfortunately, he was shot the following day by white gunmen. The shooting brings to light the racial inequality and equal rights movement witnessed in America. The existence of a black community in America could be a threat to the white American thus the indication of a need to do away with them. The advancement in technology has greatly affected employment as many people have lost their jobs. The result is a mass of unemployed people who have nowhere to go. The authority tries to contain these people by having them in prisons and other measures. However, these people are increasing in numbers to be included. The increased mass protests and the demonstrations are a sign that the under-privileged are fighting back (Dunne).    


The Figure Change of the Zombie in the 60’s

            The movie Night of the Living Dead changed in a big way how the zombie was viewed. The movie showcased new zombie myths such as being portrayed as cannibals. The movie seemed to focus on a culture dealing with uncertainty about actions taking place, motives and their future direction. The zombie had changed the films to horror movies.   Initially a zombie was raised from the dead through voodoo witchcraft that also controlled them. The new zombies are not created by the use of supernatural powers but they bite to spread their disease. The zombies are more vicious and horrific. The voodoo zombies were not actually dead but were given a potion to make them unconscious so they could follow commands of their master without questioning. The Romero zombies were rising from the dead and were weak. The zombies are also seen to be associated with blackness. America colonized Haiti where the idea of the zombie was borrowed. Until the 60’s blackness was associated with exoticism, animalism and sometimes to show the inability of black Haitians to govern themselves. The Romero film shows a black character as a hero that was a change from old movies that had blacks acting like mindless zombies. 


The film conclusion about race relations in America.

            The movie ended with the hero a black character being shot by whites. A black hero in the movie is debatable to what was the intended meaning. The makers of the film could simply have used the character without prejudice and regarding his race as not important. Historically blackness was associated with the zombie figure. However, the film could also show that humans are their own enemies and not the zombies. The movie shows that if the living worked together then the zombies would not be a threat. The strength in the group of zombies indicates how being united people can fight their problems. The movie conclusion is seen to indicate that the black and whites relation in America is strained. The black character may have indicated the capable leadership relating to American civil rights. However, the shooting of the character may be seen as punishment for a role not deserved as well as the friendship of a black to a white woman (Allkins).          

The zombies could be a representation of anyone whether a friend, spouse, priest, child or anyone else. An apparent war between us and them is obvious in the films. A concern for social order and economic development is apparent. There is also fear of racial mixing between the white and blacks that would be a threat to the white superior status. The movie represents norms in the society like the unexpected relation between black and white people. Generally the movie is a representation of the society and the problems faced. There is an indication that by working together solution to the problems could be easy to solve. The humans are their own worst enemies.    



Works Cited


Allkins, Kyle. ""Those Things" and "You People" issues of racism in Zombie Cinema." http://www2.oakland.edu/oujournal/files/19_thosethings.pdf. 3 May 2015.

Dotson, Jennifer Whitney. "CONSIDERING BLACKNESS IN GEORGE A. ROMERO’S NIGHT OF THE LIVING DEAD: AN HISTORICAL EXPLORATION." August 2004. http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-04192006-211101/unrestricted/Dotson_thesis.pdf. 3 May 2015.

Dunne, Brad. "Zombie-conomy: Reflections of culture, class and the undead." 31 October 2013. http://rabble.ca/news/2013/10/zombie-conomy-reflections-culture-class-and-undead. 3 May 2015.

Thomas, Kette. "Haitian Zombie, Myth, and Modern Identity." June 2010. http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1602&context=clcweb. 3 May 2015.