Saturday, 5 November 2016

Business Psychology

Motivation is a state of mind, defined as the willingness of an individual to do something so as to satisfy a need. Among the theories used to explain the phenomena is the basic needs model, referred to as the content theory of motivation. It highlights the specific factors that motivate an individual. The factors can be primary; one cannot do without e.g. food or secondary needs; meant to make life more comfortable e.g. a car. Several scholars came up with different postulates on the theory.
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs which proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and this needs exist in a hierarchal order. An individual is believed first to satisfy the needs lower of the hierarchy; first, that is physiological and then move up to the higher levels.
David McClelland postulated the need theory. According to the theory, our actions are influenced by the need for; achievement, power, and affiliations. Achievement is the completion of a task based on personal efforts. Affiliation is the feeling of being accepted to a particular group (fit in). Power is associated with status recognition, competition and influencing others.
Fredrick Herzberg postulated the two-factor theory, that is, factors that have an impact on the workplace motivation which include hygiene factors, for example, working conditions and motivators such as recognition.
A bribe in many cases is paid to an individual so as to look down upon law or to perform/allow an illegal activity e.g. a job applicant paying to be employed. The laws are against bribery, and NO situation in the working environment supports the vice.
However, for other cases away from work it can be advocated for. For example, for a parent to motivate a young one to perform in school they promise a gift e.g. a play station which can be viewed as a form of bribe.
Factors that promote job satisfaction
Locke and Lathan (1976) give a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. The factors that influence job satisfaction indirectly improve company’s performance.
Wages and salaries are essential to job satisfaction. Employees are mainly after the reward factor; they, as a result, are more focused on the well-paying tasks.
Staff training, an organization's system may be automated or manually based. Despite the system in play workshops and symposiums to educate the staff more on their roles and create awareness on new trends in the industry. Well-trained staff are highly motivated and find their jobs satisfactory. 
Interesting jobs, people obtain more satisfaction in areas where they can be creative and are not limited by routine. The challenges are new, and they do not stick to procedures. Every day is a learning day.
Recognition for tasks well performed. Where organizations have a system in place that recognizes and awards the top performers for a selected period, they motivate all employees to work towards the task.
Job security; a form of assurance that one job is persistently present. When an individual operates in an environment of certainty, they are highly motivated and perform roles well. They have in mind a notion that they have a long way to go.

Promotion and growth also determine the rate of job satisfaction. Employees do not aim to stay fixed in a particular role and position in the organization for a long time. They seek to move higher in the ranks and up management ranks for greater challenges, experiences and even better pay.

Thursday, 20 October 2016

Literature Review and Theory Development












The paper will cover vicarious learning and the experiential learning and analyze which is the best in terms of international investment. The paper will cover various theories that explain the two modes of learning, explain the literature review under the theoretical background, the hypothesis after each of the theories, the authors who follow the theories in various papers, the empirical results and the conclusion. The connections and differences between venture capital will also be discussed and analyzed in this paper.


Vicarious learning is the kind of learning that is based on learning the behavior of another person which in simple terms can be explained by imitation. Learners observe what others do and embrace what they learn and take it as if it was there original idea and in most cases imitation is done by the weaker group and imitates the stronger one so as to succeed. Experiential learning on the other hand is the learning that occurs through experience and is also defined as the learning that occurs through the reflection of handling a task (Cohen, & Sproull, 1997). There are various ways to determine the best way to use so as to when a company want to improve its strategies in terms of performance. There are merits and demerits of choosing the strategy to be used as will be discussed in the literature review. When there is a common venture capital acquisition is likely to take place in an organization. Therefore venture capital investors are able to form a bridge between the target markets and acquiring which as a result reduces asymmetric information that is concerned with the transactions carried out by both parties.


Venture capital in organizations plays a role that is very minor in basic innovation funding. The next stage of innovation is the most critical and that is when the significance of capital venture is revealed in an organization. The venture money is not long-term it is just for the purposes of ensuring that the company’s assets are liquid and that the company can be sold to a corporation(Devinney, Pedersen, & Tihanyi, 2010).Capital markets are ruled out since there appears a niche in the venture capital. The venture capital of an organization is comprised of four main players namely the private investors, investment bankers, public markets and corporations, corporations and government and venture capitalists. The VCs are able to protect themselves against risks through coinvesting with other firms in the market.

The theory of development explains the local density and foreign subsidiary performance. In the theory development, the density dependence literature is drawn so as to forward local density as the moderator of foreign subsidiary performance. There are some theoretical implications that are used to explain the local density and foreign subsidiary performance.
Liability of foreignness
Multinational enterprises incur costs not faced by domestic firms. This makes them be affected and thus their performance is also altered with as well as the survival of their foreign subsidiaries. The exchange of trading operations of the foreign subsidiaries had lower survival rate than those of the domestic rivals. The liability of newness is a term that is used to explain the challenges following the birth of an organization while the term liability of foreignness is used to explain the challenges that a subunit faces in the host country. The problems are seen as the subunit carries on its operations and not only at birth. The main problem of the liability of foreignness is on how to avoid the liability of foreignness. It is not however clear what the cause of the liability of foreignness and thus overcoming it on the basis of whether a foreign subsidiary should be similar or same to the local companies is undefined (Devinney, Pedersen, & Tihanyi, 2010).
Local density
Pressures usually vary in strength depending on the local density. The capacity of how a population can acquire resources depends on legitimization of the members by those who usually control the resources. The institutional pressures for cognitive legitimacy are always higher early in the life of a population when the density is low. It is assumed that the increases in local density are associated with the increases in competitive pressures. The more the pressure increases on the firms the more they are expected to offer good and attractive prices to the customers.
Strategic conformity and local density
There are pressures that are dual to conform with and to differ from one’s competitors in the same industry. Research on strategic conformity also involves a competitive versus institutional dilemma.  The strategy of conformity is based on the institutional theories whereby the institutions influence the organizations to follow the policies, the practices and structures that are consistent with the institution preferences in an organizational field. This theory deals with firms in a domestic context but its arguments can also be extended to the international level (Dixon, 2000).
Market experience and local density
When operating in a host country, foreign subsidiaries face unfamiliarity and discrimination costs. As time passes, liability of foreignness is always expected to go down as foreign subsidiary accumulates knowledge about the preferences of the customers, institutions and the suppliers. Inadequate information about a foreign subsidiary on the part of host country customers, suppliers and institutions can often lead to discrimination of the foreign subsidiary for example unwillingness to do business with it as they can be overlooked as inferior. Generally, business practices in high density environments should be more similar even in to high density environments in other countries (Easterby-Smith, 2001).
Hannan & Carroll, 1992, 2000 follow the theory at the end of chapter 6, 2 and 16.
(Deephouse, 1999) follow the theory of local density at the end of paper 6 and paper 18 and 16.
Zaheer (1995) and Zaheer and Mosakowski (1997), follow the theory of liability of foreignness at the end of paper 13.
Strategic conformity is positively related to foreign subsidiary performance in low-density environments. Strategic conformity is negatively related to foreign subsidiary performance in high-density environments. Also market experience is positively related to foreign subsidiary performance. The local density is negatively related to foreign subsidiary performance. Lastly local density moderates the relationship between market experience and foreign subsidiary performance in a way that the relationship is less positive in high density environments.
These theories explain the main assumption is that most mangers think that they will prosper when they mimic the competitors. The theories in business imitation are divided into two broad categories.
Information based theories of imitation
Inthe information based theories of imitation where firms follow others that are perceived as having superior information and rivalry based theories where firms imitate others to maintain competitive parity or limit rivalry. The information based theories of imitation have been proposed in the fields of population ecology, institutional sociology, field of economics among many others. The theories apply when the manager cannot access the connections between outcomes and the actions with great confidence. At times managers may be unsure of the fundamental difficulties and the consequences. In this case, managers are receptive to information implicit of the actions of others. In many cases in uncertain environments managers may tend to imitate to signal others about their own quality (Gröne, 2010).
 Economic theories
This is where the information is developed more explicitly. The most known economic theory of imitation is called the information cascades or the social learning. Information cascades often occur when an individual follows the behaviors of those ahead of him without regarding his information. A good example is a restaurant that has a long queue. The people at the end of the queue may have intended to go to other restaurants but the queue attracted them suggesting that the restaurant may be of high quality (Hitt, Ireland, & Hoskisson, 2007).  Thus, agents always choose to go against their initial signals as they draw the suggestions from the behaviors they have observed from others. Another example of the economic theory of the herd behavior shows up when the managers ignore their own private information and imitate the decision of the other people so as to avoid a negative reputation. The managers send quality to the others by imitating others. For example a case where there are superior and inferior managers who have private information about investment. The outsiders do not know what type of manager each is rather they know that the superior managers receive informative information and the weak managers receive noisy signals. Managers ignore their own information so that they can be evaluated as superior and thus they end up imitating other firms that they think have made it so as to be viewed as superior (Meyer, 2016).
 Theories of organizational sociology and ecology
They give related explanations for behavioral similarity. Rational managers will always make their organizations similar by trying to change them. An example is when organizations model themselves on other organizations when the environment is not certain. However the model organization is thought to be very successful because it reduces the costs that occur due to uncertainty in an organization.One of the major differences between the theories of organizational sociology and ecology is that the growth in the number of entrants increases legitimacy while making competition to be more intense. One of its major components is legitimation whereby according to Carrol and Hannon, new industries acquire new industry entrants and thus making the firm to acquire legitimacy that facilities its growth (Pedersen, Asmussen, & Devinney, 2011).
Interactions between mimetic and experiential learning
They are theories that explain thatthe organizations learn by mimicking the behavior of others. Whether a firm puts so much on one mode of learning over the other depends on the time they can take before committing a decision and the time they have. In a new industry, mimetic, experiential and vicarious learning proceed together. It happens that bigger firms are mimicked by the smaller firms. Experience is more costly than imitation since to gain experience it can take one sometime but imitating can be done fast and easily. Also according to Cohen followers at times invest in the capacity of absorbing so as to facilitate learning from others and speed the implementation of things (Sleigh, & Economist Intelligence Unit, 1991).
At the end of paper 13,
Authors like Banerjee, 1992; Bikhchandani, Hirsheleifer, & Welch, 1992, 1998), Bikhchandani et al. 1992-994, follow economic theory.
Cyert & March, 1963 and DiMaggio and Powell (1983), follow the theories of organizational sociology and ecology.
Cyert and March, 1963; follow the Interactions between mimetic and experiential learning
Lower likelihood of exit for having greater multimarket contact with market incumbents, multimarket competition lowers the rate of exit and effects of multimarket competition vary across competitor yards. Also managers imitate the acquisition activities of those firms to which they are always tied through dictatorships, the prior decision by others provide legitimation and information, firms imitate the strategic behavior of other firms thus occupying the same strategic niche and later entrants always follow the entry mode of the earlier entrants.
The beliefs and routines change in response to direct organizational experience through trial and error and the organizational search.
Learning by doing
The best example of learning from direct experience is explained in the effects of cumulated production and user experience on productivity in the manufacturing sector for example the manufacture of aircrafts in the world war 11. The number of airframes led to the decrease of direct labor of producing the airframes (Verbeke, Tavares-Lehmann, & Tulder, 2011).
Competency traps
Organizations are embracing the routines that are based on trial and error. However the routine themselves are treated as fixed. In the case of multilevel learning, organizations learn simultaneously both to discriminate among the routines and to refine the routines by learning within them. Multilevel learning usually leads to specialization which is advantageous. Competency traps are usually likely to lead to maladaptive specialization if the newer routines are better than older ones for example exposure to new procedures in a new technology (Sleigh, & Economist Intelligence Unit, 1991).
Mainly the lessons of experience are drawn from a relatively small number of observations which are usually in a complex changing ecology of learning organizations. Some of the major components of interpretation of experience are individual judgment and reference. Humans are not perfect in recording things thus they are referred to as statisticians who are not perfect. They are insensitive to sample size (Sleigh, & Economist Intelligence Unit, 1991).
Organizations capture the way they carry out their activities from the experience of others. Learning from experience of others enhances the strategy of competition. It thus explains that understanding the relation between experiential learning and routines, technologies or strategies require the attention of the organization networks and the experience of the individual organization.
The organizational learning is not only important as a useful perceptive from which the organizational change is described but also as an important instrument of organizational changes.
At the end of paper 16, Cyert & March 1963 follow learning from direct experience
Thompson 1967 follows interpretation of experience
Dutton & Starbuck 1978, follow learning from the experience of others.
Brehmer 1980 follow learning as a form of intelligence
The complications of using organizational learning as a form of learning are not rival.
It occurs when the use of a practice by one or more organization increases the likelihood of being adopted by other organizations. The theory is explained by the new venture intentional entry by the hypothesis below.
A). the higher the level of internationalization, within a new venture’s home country industry, the greater the likelihood of international entry by the new venture
 B). the higher the level of internationalization by large firms within a new venture’s home country industry, the greater the likelihood of international entry by the new venture.
C). the higher the level of internationalization by the fastest growing firms within a new venture’s home country industry, the greater the likelihood of international entry by the new venture.
D). the higher the level of internationalization within a home country industry, the mere positive the association between the new venture international entry.
E). the higher the level of internationalization by the fastest-growing firms within a home country, the more positive the association between new venture international entry and performance.
Dunning 1995, follows the theory of Interorganizational imitation and internationalizationin paper 18, 7, 3, 5 and 16.


Observation has been very significant especially for banks despite the availability of market investors and bank acquisitions. Most of the banks and even the big ones have been successful as a result of observing which is simply summarized as learning by observing in this paper. Learning by doing in this paper has been summarized as what is within the firm while on the other hand learning by observing spills over the public sphere. Further, the location of an organization influences the characteristics of organizations and the internationalization of new ventures. This can be explained by the ecological conditions which greatly influence the availability of resources for an organization. it is clear from the paper that ventures are able to do well even in competitive markets even with their small sizes. Also firms that use imitation will largely depend on past experience and network position. In the case of venture capital, they make huge investments and risk failure in the run as well as make errors because of overemphasis on human capital.
Foreign subsidiaries incur a liability of foreignness when they are operating in a host country, which reflects why they perform less than their domestic rivals. The performance of foreign subsidiaries depends on the local density. It is not clear whether a foreign subsidiary can outperform local firms the results show that it can overcome the liability of foreignness and achieve high performance relative to other foreign rivals by achieving the fit between its own strategy, local environment, and market experience within the country that has hosted it (Argote, 2013).
It is important that more account is taken of the costs and benefits of imitation. Imitation has numerous merits in that it speeds up the adoption of innovations, it also gives pressure to firms thus making them improve their products it can also enhance networking as well as several positive externalities and complementaries. Some of the demerits that attribute from imitation include, it can lead to competition that is very destructive, and it can also cause overinvestment so as to be ahead of the other competitors in the market, has an aspect of increased risk and has reduced variety. In the case of imitation it is very crucial to note the benefits and costs that are accompanied by imitation so as to have a better overview of when and where to imitate so as to make imitation beneficial to a firm. In the case of organizational learning, it builds on three major classical observations drawn from the behavioral studies of the organizations (Verbeke, Tavares-Lehmann, & Tulder, 2011).The first that the behavior of organizations is determined by routine, the second is that the behaviors are history dependent and lastly is that the behaviors are oriented to targets. Given the level of uncertainty that is always associated with newness, new ventures are likely to imitate other firms in their environments so as to increase the legitimacy and access of resources. The perspective implications of interorganizational imitation on new ventures do benefit in the sense that they gain profits by conforming to industry internationalization norms. Depending on what format to use, an organization ought to analyze the importance of using each of them so that it can be of benefit to the entire working process of the organization. In this case a connection or a differentiation of the modes in which an organization can venture can be analyzed.The type of way that a company embraces affects how it performs in the near future. For example in the case of imitation an organization managers ought to analyze the advantages of using each so that an organization can maintain a competitive advantage.


The different theories explained above can be used to explain the different modes of learning that are in the firms. Both the experiential and vicarious learning are important in different fields in both the international investments and the local companies. They can be used also to explain how a country that has been hosted in another tries to survive and compete in the host country (Verbeke, Tavares-Lehmann, & Tulder, 2011).The benefits of vicarious learning have been outlined for example they can make the rival companies produce quality products and is cost saving because embracing a new way of doing things is expensive as compared to imitation and also a major advantage of the experiential learning is that it is easier and fast to embrace in a firm. Based on the empirical results above it is right to conclude that vicarious learning is important in international investment and thus it is the best to use when in a host country.









Argote, L. (2013). Organizational learning: Creating, retaining and transferring knowledge. Heidelberg: Springer.
Armed Forces Communications Association., & Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (U.S.). (1950). Signals. Washington, D.C.: The Association.
Cohen, M. D., & Sproull, L. S. (1997). Organizational learning. Thousand Oaks, Cal. [u.a.: Sage Publ.
Devinney, T. M., Pedersen, T., & Tihanyi, L. (2010). The past, present and future of international business & management. Bingley: Emerald.
Dixon, N. M. (2000). The organizational learning cycle: How we can learn collectively. Brookfield, Vt: Gower.
Easterby-Smith, M. (2001). Organizational learning and the learning organization: Developments in theory and practice. London [u.a.: SAGE.

Gröne, F. (2010). Foreign competition and firm boundary dynamics: An analysis of US and German firms. Wiesbaden: Gabler Verlag / Springer Fachmedien.
Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. E. (2007). Strategic management: Competitiveness and globalization : concepts. Mason, OH: South-Western.
Meyer, K. (2016). International business. Place of publication not identified: Cengage Learning Emea.
Pedersen, T., Asmussen, C. G., & Devinney, T. (2011). Dynamics of Globalization: Location-Specific Advantages or Liabilities of Foreignness?. Bradford: Emerald Group Pub.
Sleigh, P. A. C., & Economist Intelligence Unit. (1991). The European automotive components industry. London: EIU.
Verbeke, A., Tavares-Lehmann, A. T., & Tulder, R. . (2011). Entrepreneurship in the global firm. Bingley: Emerald.

Quality Analysis: The Giant Motor Industry

The Giant Motor Industry</strong></p>
General Motors has remained to be a giant in the motor industry. The company was founded on 16th September 1908 in Michigan but incorporated on August 11, 2009. The company designs, builds, and sells cars all over the world. Moreover, it provides automotive financing services through General Motors financial services. General Motors sells trucks and cars to fleet customers, leasing companies, rental car companies, and governments. Vehicles sold to fleet customers are done so either directly or through its network of dealers. The motor giant also offers after sale services to its retail and fleet customers such as maintenance, collision repairs, extended service warranties, light repairs, and vehicle accessories. It offers 13 Flex Fuel cars in America for the 2015 model plus other four models to commercial and fleet customers.

General Motors sells its products under Cadillac, Buick, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Opel, and Vauxhall brands to customers outside North America. One of the longest continuous use automobile nameplates in production is the Chevrolet Suburban that this paper will aim to focus on. The car is a massive full-size, extended length sports utility car from Chevrolet. It is believed to be the most profitable vehicles for the company dating from 1934 during the 1935 United States model year. The suburban has been manufactured under different Marques including Chevrolet, GMC, and Holden. However, the GMC version was rebranded to GMC Yukon XL just recently. The current suburban is a huge SUV that has three rows of seating, a full pick-up truck frame and has a V8 engine.

Following the recall that faced General Motors, the motor giant is not taking anything to chance in regards to quality. Through the new CEO, Mary Barra quality has been the primary emphasis to avoid another issue based on quality. Therefore, quality in the production of the suburban is a top most priority and means a lot to the motor giant. Due to the quality maintained in its output, the Chevrolet suburban and mostly the 2015 model has ranked 6 out of 13 affordable large SUV's. The ranking has been done out of the analysis of published reviews and the numerous test drives of the Chevrolet Suburban including safety data and reliability. In a bid to improve quality, the 2015 model of the car has a roomy, quiet, luxurious cabin, composed ride that is easy to manoeuvre according to numerous customer reviews. The model is powered by a 5.3-litre V8 engine with a six-speed automatic transmission. It also includes three trim levels including the LS, LTZ, and LT, to improve quality the suburban has been thoroughly redesigned for the 2015 model year.

<strong>Swot Analysis of General Motors</strong>

One of the primary strength of GM is its market leading position in the US and China, the two countries being the two largest automotive markets. In recent years, the company has sold 2.6 million vehicles with an approximate market share of 17.5%. Over the recent past, riding on the strong performance in North America, GM increased its capital expenditures from 6.2 billion-8.1 billion within the year 2011-2012 (Steven, 2013). A reason behind this is the low break-even point in the North-American market and due to the global geographic diversity of its earnings. In the Chinese market, Gm is by far the largest foreign automaker by sales. The company sold 2.6 million vehicles in 2012 alone and enjoys the privilege of offering the broadest line-up of vehicle brands among the numerous automakers in the region. Other major strengths for the company include its branding techniques that have produced stable automobiles and the huge company's worldwide presence.

Despite the enormous success of the motor industry, GM has had several weaknesses in the business world. It's diminishing dealer network is a growing problem for the Company. It has compiled a list that includes more than a thousand dealership market for closure. It announced that it would no longer renew its franchise agreements with one-quarter of its United States dealerships. Another weakness is the insufficient liquidity where there has been a reduction in liquidity from $27.3 billion in 2007 to $14 billion in the financial year 2008. Losses are traced to lower sales volumes and an increased reduction in working capital. Through the decreasing liquidity, research and development, and relationship with suppliers are negatively affected. Other major weaknesses include: inadequate performance among some business segments and low debt ratings.

A primary opportunity that exists for General Motors is the focus on in-car technology. It is highly focused on its broad global strategy of delivering a new generation of connected cars and trucks with the embedded 4G LTE mobile broadband. The move is the largest deployments in the automotive industry and is intended to attract younger tech-savvy buyers. Another opportunity that exists is the growing Chinese and Indian car market. There exist positive projects for GM in both the countries. The Chinese growth rate for new cars is in a 14% growth rate and is considered to be the largest growing global industry by volume of vehicles sold. Industry estimates stipulate that by the year 2020, the Chinese market could reach 30 million units annually from 19 million in 2011. Moreover, the company intends to quadruple its share of China's luxury auto market to 10% by 2020. It plans to launch the new Cadillac models and expand its distribution network. Another opportunity includes the increased global truck market that is projected to rise at a constant rate yearly.

The continuing global recession provides an enormous threat to General Motors. There has been increased economic decline that has in return led to reduced consumer demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles including all full-size pick-up trucks and sport utility vehicles. These products have been GM's most profitable products. The economic climate has also led to tighter credit markets that have made it hard for consumers to finance automobile purchases. Other threats include intense competition from competitors and the general weakness in the global automobile industry.

General Motors uses a range of different quality systems in its operations. However, it has ignored some of these quality systems over the years leading to serious consequences. A Cobalt recall on February Seventh of the year 2014 was one result of this neglect. The primary default with the Cobalt is that, during a crash the airbags failed to deploy (Tanya, 2014). A reason behind this was because there was an error with the ignition switches. The recall proved that GM's culture ought to be changed from the default in the Cobalt had always been known. Both the CEO at that time and all the team involved in production acted unethically and ignored the quality systems that GM ought to follow in the production of its motor vehicles. However, with the appointment of Marry Barra as the CEO, a fresh start has begun at the Motor giant industry (Geoff, 2014).

Following the recall on 2014, there was an enormous failure for General Motors in the quality system measure of fast response. Going in line with the idea of a quick response, the company opted to have immediately addressed the quality failure in the Cobalt. It should have later defined the process to be followed with an aim of correcting the failure. Methods of displaying relevant information as a visual management tool should have also been defined. With the Cobalt, the company ignored the aspect of a fast response. The problem was solved twelve years after it manifested itself.

General Motors has had several alliance strategies just like other automakers that are strengthening alliances with Japanese carmakers to penetrate the Asian markets (Yoshino & U, 1995). GM has purchased several major car components from Japanese car manufacturers. The motor giant acquired 20% equity in Fuji Heavy Industries, 49% shares of Isuzu, and 10% of Suzuki (Nam & Kentaro, 2000). On 29th February 2012 GM and Peugeot Citroen announced the creation of a global strategic Alliance based on two pillars. The components include the sharing of vehicle platforms and the creation of global purchasing joint venture- GM acquired 7% of the total capital of PSA Peugeot Citroen.            In conclusion, despite the past quality issues at GM the conditions are changing following the new leadership and a new culture that does not compromise quality is being formed. The modern customers are also more tech-savvy and therefore GM opts to produce more technology oriented vehicles. Therefore, the company creates vehicles that are embedded with the 4G LTE mobile broadband. The future for GM is quite clear, and the motor giant will remain to be the giant that it has always been.

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video games cause less violence (Proposal and annotated Bibliography)

Video games were first discovered in the early 1970s, and so far they have gone great development in terms of technological advancements through systems like the Sony PlayStation, which has made these games and graphics more realistic. These realistic graphics on video games attract a lot of people to play them, especially young people. Violent video games are one of the most-played games in the world (Anderson & Bushman, 2001).    There has been a widespread debate about whether or not the content of violent video games has any effect on the players.

Currently, there have been video games ratings that rate the contents of the games. The purpose of the evaluation is to give the public an indication of the nature of the content in the game. However, children have had access to games of a higher rating with permission from their parents, or behind their backs. In my study, there is reliance on the point of violent games having a role in aggressive and violent behaviours.

In the study, the independent variables will include the amount of time spent playing the games, and the age of the child. The very key dependent variable will be the perception of the teenagers who are involved in playing the violent games. The perception will be dependent on the time the games are played and the age of the gamers.

Most of the literature on video games violence is concerned with how these video games affect an individual’s aggressive tendencies. Diane in an article focuses on the causes of adolescent violence. She presents an idea that the kids exposed to more time on video games have a tendency to behave violently. Vessey and Lee conducted a research on violence and the media. In their findings, it is clear that video games are dangerous because they involve a lot of interaction while playing them. Their study focused on how video games and other media outlets cause an increase in aggression in the young people. Dominic, Lin, Lepper, and Fling did studies that contributed to the idea that violent video games are a cause of aggression and violence.            Research on the effects of violent video games is very extensive. However, there has been tiny knowledge of how the perception of a child changes due to exposure to violent video games. The study proposed here be done would give a focus on changes in the perception of children who have never played any violent game before. Through these, there will be some insight into differences in perception of children after being exposed to violent video games.            The method for this study is a questionnaire design. It is because it will allow the participants to act in their usual routine without being influenced by a laboratory setting. Subjects will be school aged children from age 13 to 18.            In this proposal, there is a high potential to provide a different insight into the problems of video games and aggression. This proposed research will provide a slightly but crucial angle to the amount of research that has been carried out in the field. Although there are some constraints to my study, there is a potential to come up with new research questions. It will also be possible to come up with new research in the field of violence and aggression about violence in video games. <strong>Literature</strong><strong> Review</strong> Anderson, C A and B J Bushman. “Effects of violent video games on aggressive behaviour, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological behavour: A metaanalytic review of the scientific literature.” <u>psychological science</u> (2001): 12(5), 353-359.

This journal article is based on the fact that exposure to television and violence in movies is a predisposition to violence and aggression. Based on that fact, Craig and Anderson hold the idea that violent video games will also lead to aggression and violence among players. Through a vast research and a meta-analytic review of the video-games research literature, there is evidence that violence in video games is a cause of aggression and violence.            Experiments and non-experimental studies in this journal in laboratory and field settings support that there is an influence on violent video games. Analyses done shows that exposure to violent video games increases aggressive-related thoughts and physiological arousal. There is also the evidence that playing video games decreases the prosocial behaviour.            Andersons and Craig’s findings are relevant to my research since it moulds in part of my hypothesis. It helps in proving that violence and aggression can be created through playing of these violent video games.
Silvern, S B and P A Williamson. “The effects of video game play on young childrens aggression, fantasy, and pro-social behaviour.” <u>Journal pf applied developmental psychology</u> (1987): 8(4), 453-462.

This journal is from an ecological perspective of human development and how significant media may cause an effect on children’s behaviour. It has built on the idea that although there have been suggestions that home computer can cause behaviour change in children, no credited data has been published to prove it. However, there is a relationship between the features in TV and that in a computer. Therefore, research on television and violence gives itself as a paradigm for the study of effects of video games on the behaviour of children.            Steven, Silvern, and Peter after studies with 28 children aged 4 to 6, proved that violent video games and television cartoons arouse a child’s arousal rate.            The findings of this research will form a solid basis in my research in helping to prove that there is a change in a child’s behaviour after playing a violent video game.
Anderson, C A, D A Gentile and K E Buckley. <u>Violent video game effects on children and adolescents.</u> New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Craig Anderson and Douglas in this book give a very clear explanation of why participation in playing video games can lead to aggressive tendencies. It also shows why the public and the politicians find it difficult to accept the results of the findings on the effects of violent video games.            The book contains a concise summary of past reports and research on the effects of violent video games. It has also been dedicated to anyone working or living with adolescents, and a must read for a person who knows someone who plays video games.            Other there has been a considerable controversy on the subject in question, this book creates a mind-opening journey for the psychological, political, and sociological implications of violent video games for the general population.
Gee, J P. <u>Good video games and good learning: Collected essays on video games, learning, and literacy.</u> New york: Peter Lang Publishing, 2007.

In this book, James Paul Gee has gone a step further in assessing the nature of the past generation and that of the present about gaming. It mentions that parents grew up in the world where radio, television and the personal computers were very rare. Also, the phone was set up on the wall and strictly guarded by the parents.            In a recent study, children were asked to suggest what they thought poverty was. They suggested that not owning a mobile phone was poverty. Playing games has also been identified as a major practice among the current generation. The book also points out that there is a difference between good and bad video games.            Through these facts, it will be possible to assess the nature of the situation that existed in the past in comparison to the acts of violence that happen today. Through this, it will contribute significantly to my hypothesis and research as a whole.
Bartholow, B D and C A Anderson. “Effects of violent video games on aggressive behaviour: Potential sex differences.” <u>Journal of experimental social psychology</u> (2002): 38(3), 283-290.

It is a journal of experimental social psychology by Bruce and Craig. In this journal, there is the study of an examination of aggression after playing a video game as displayed in the laboratory. A total of 43 students were assigned to either play a violent or a non-violent video game for ten minutes. They were then to compete with a confederate in a reaction time task that allowed for a provocation and retaliation. Punishment set by the participants for their opponents served as a measure of aggression.            Results proved that playing games with violence led to higher aggression compared to playing a game without violence. The research also focused on the potential differences in aggressive styles between men and women.

Death in the Haymarket by John Green

Death in Haymarket is a story by John Green is about the problems experienced by the civilians after the war in United States. In this perspective, different working classes developed conflicts, particularly, the industrialists and the poor working class. Consequently, it led to the development of economic inequality in the United States. During this instance, workers had gathered into labor organizations to dissent against the changes which were made, where workers were entitled to be working for eight hours per day by the industrialists. Indeed, this was pure oppression of the working fraternity by the industrialists. In the course of one meeting that workers held, the condition was not good during the occasion that had brought together many workers. Innately, there was information leaked to the government that these people had the intent to incite people, thus, paralyze the operations in the country. In retaliatory, the government brought many police officers to counter the condition. For that reason, the meeting ended unconditionally since there was eruption of crises. In the course of these crises, there was a bomb blast that led to injuries and death of several people with them being soldiers. Death in the Haymarket proved the point that meaningful freedom cannot exist in a situation of extreme economic inequality. It was a clear justification that economic inequality results to discrimination and oppression of the economically weaker class. Given this, this essay seeks to determine whether meaningful freedom can exist in a situation of extreme economic inequality.

The death of members of the labor movement is a clear show of the problems which workers were subjected to. Though this was the case, low paid workers remained united in the fight against inequality and discrimination. They were aimed to the challenges which they were going through since the government was not concerned with their problems. It is clear that the rich oppressed the poor since those people who owned industries wanted people to work for many days in order for them to enrich on their expense (Green, 2007). It would be good if they added working days together with the salaries of their employees but on contrary, that was not the case. Specially, they were aimed to increase labor but they were not willing to increase the payment and even the working conditions were poor. Therefore, there was a need handle the hurdles, hence, formation of some labor movement which would address these challenges. In this regard, the problem arose when the participants were bombed. Apparently, it is thought that industrialists were responsible for that action which led to the death of several people where others got severe injuries.

The working poor needed their freedom from the oppression that they were subjected to by industrialists. They wanted to be rescued from industrialists’ selfishness acts. Ideally, they were adding more days of work for their sake. In response to this vice, labor organizations were formed in order to focus on the problems of the workers and to end the oppressions. The problems that were workforce experienced were exhibited in the occasion where certain classes of people were trying to make the matters worse by hindering the good work of the employees. The challenge was preventing from forming and promoting the ideologies of the labor organizations. It is clear that the war left many with difficult conditions and a lot of problems that made them to join people who were working in industries. Other sectors had not grown to an extent that they could provide such labor and thus they were left with no option than to work in these industries. Because of this the spirit of oppression by the employers heightened making the situation worse for the workers. Indeed, this was happening to the poor class of people being engineered by the rich individuals.

Only a few group of individuals that were able to survive the economic challenges that were facing people at the time. The others succumbed to the condition, hence, supporting the fact that no freedom with economic inequality. There were few people who were wealthy and the bigger population had to seek for jobs in industries that were associated with the oppression of the poor economic class. Ideally, the best way that the problem of coercion could be solved was through the creation of organizations and movements that would look after the rights and the freedom of these people. The incident at Haymarket was meant to polarize the operations which were set by low earners who were seeking to bridge the gap between the rich and poor in the nation. Because of this, the rich would be forced to share their resources with the poor and that those who were much privileged would be forced to share with others who were suffering due to economic problems that were resent at the time.

Although the claim in the story on the oppression of the workforce seem to be true, there is no enough ground to support the claim that economic inequality results to denial of freedom to the inferior class. Categorically, the poor people in the United States needed to work harder than the affluent class to equal their status. For that reason, there was need to make them work for longer timeframes. Only hard work could guarantee the poor class the transition to the wealthy class. Moreover, the government could only side with the rich to influence the poor class to work harder. That would inspire the country’s overall economic growth.

In conclusion, labor movements faced great challenges since they lacked the support from the government. This is evident where security officials were sent to end the meeting at Haymarket where many started shooting the civilians. This shows that the government had joined hands with the industrialists to ensure that the low earners strained hard. According to Green, the government was benefiting through the money which was earned from the sales of industries and so it was viewing this as a chance of developing without catering for the needs of the poor and those who were disadvantaged. However, there was much that needed to be done in order to ensure that the gap was bridged and that the rich did not oppress the poor. It is important to note that there were many organizations that were immerging at the time in order to look after the needs of the people who were not secured by the government. Some movements were formed in order to look after those who were beset. Undeniably, it is not easy to match freedom of all the people if there economic inequality in the society.

Green, J. (2007). <em>Death in the Haymarket: A story of Chicago, the first labor movement and the     bombing that divided gilded age America</em>. Anchor.

Why, for Hobbes, is a State of Nature tantamount to a State of War? What claims about human psychology and the world does Hobbes offer in support of this thesis? How might we imagine an alternative argument – one that relies on fewer assumptions

Why, for Hobbes, is a State of Nature tantamount to a State of War? What claims about human psychology and the world does Hobbes offer in support of this thesis? How might we imagine an alternative argument – one that relies on fewer assumptions.
           In the book Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes discusses his moral and political philosophy about the nature of human beings especially concerning the way they behave amongst each other as social animals. He also looks at the state of nature and the natural condition of human interaction concerning their nature. It forms many of his political theories about an absolute sovereign where the power of the people is invested. In Hobbes philosophy, the state of nature is important in the making of a political theory. This essay analyzes Hobbes philosophy of the state of nature and whether his argument is valid or not.

<strong>The state of Nature, the state of war, and human psychology</strong>

One of the most important arguments concerning Hobbes theory about human psychology is that of pessimism. Here, pessimism brings him to his conclusion that the state of nature is as objectionable as it is with the way he describes it in his view. Hobbes continues to argue that every human being is characterized by the thought that despite a few, who through a mutual kind of recognition and admiration, he understood to be his equal homes and endowed with the thought of wisdom (Leviathan, p.61). About this kind of argument, all men according to Hobbes are equal as each human being has faith in what he or she believes in, meaning that each of man’s stature is to have the same kind of desires and abilities of their own to realize these desires. It brings about the fact that in a situation where men desire what they know they cannot have, they develop mistrust that breeds contempt and hatred (Leviathan, p61). Also according to Hobbes, the nature of life is filled with the egoistic kind of desires, and due to this, men will make and destroy each other which is a very instrumental factor in Hobbes philosophy of the state of nature (Leviathan, p61).

It should, however, be remembered that despite the augmentation of powers that are enjoyed currently, men will pursue this course of self-help. It will also be done as a way of conservation. Hobbes says that “the cause of this is not always that a man hopes for a more intensive delight than he has already attained to… but he cannot assure the power and means to live well… without the acquisition of more.”(Leviathan, p.47). In this argument, it openly means that because all men desire conservation in places that they know they are not able to have, they anticipate that those who desire this will also try to take it away from them.

With the same argument, human beings will through any means, fight for power to control as many men as they can. This means that a man will fight for so much power until he is very certain that there is no other man with the power to harm him. Human psychology also shows that men desire to be glorified, and this is in their nature to seek these actions. This is what makes us different from another type of animals. For example, when we look at chapter 17 he draws a comparison with ants and bees. Hobbes argues that men are very distinct as they major concern is to be glorified, however, for ants and bees, glory is meaningless to them and private and public gain has no difference.

The state of nature is one that is filled with suspicious thought as it is human psychology. For Hobbes, the state of nature is anarchical in nature; this is because there is not over-arching power that controls the actions of man. However, it is directed by the quest to win over little resources that men continuously fight for. With this regard, the human psychology is driven by the desire to forsake their natural state and seek for something bigger which leads to a state of war. This is because resources are limited and all men have the same desire, and not everyone has the power or the ability to realize these desires. Due to this, man will find himself at war where men fight against one another (Leviathan, p. 62).

As a product of a state of war for all and the need of the man to use all he can so as to guarantee his security, Hobbes adds that “every man has a right to everything including another person's body. Therefore, as long as this natural right of every man to everything endures, there can be no security to any man.”(Leviathan, p. 64).

With this regard thus, in man’s state of nature, there is no rights or property, neither is there the right of the self, meaning that each man has a right to what he or she believes to be rightfully theirs. It is with this assumption that Hobbes bases his argument on the desire of man to fight for his self-interest. This means that man will only support a system that will drive him towards achieving these desires. For this reason, man will form a pact with himself to surrender to these desires where the greatest desires rule. For Hobbes, these desires are invested in one person by all people who are a necessary condition that must be satisfied for a man to be rescued from the state of nature.

Also, whether or not this kind of power is invested in one person or a group of people, this is not so important. However, one must ensure that this power is absolute by all means. Different people will be attracted to a different state of nature, as an objective moral law that is right for some reason other than the rule of a sovereign, for example, rationality or religion. This could also include property rights, a state constitution that limit man’s sovereign power or that which divides sovereignty among different areas of the government. For this reason, Hobbes advises that for a man to escape the state of nature then he must be able to recognize the rule of sovereign as the only power source.

In the end, as man recognizes an alternative source of power, then one risks a return to the state of nature like when sovereignty is divided then the two branches will as is nature compete in the end the state of way will also follow. When we look at the constitution or some moral code, due to the fact that human disagreement is all pervasive, there will be need for external intervention in order to interpret this for each human being, in the end sovereignty of the man being divided the state of nature and that of war will compete with one another till one of them becomes victorious. This is the same as a shared sovereignty with two areas of government, where it dictates that the only way to run away from the state of nature is to embrace the fact that one person must pose sovereignty in its most absolute form.

In conclusion, the state of nature is very vital in human psychology as it molds the behavioral concepts that ensure that man can lead or prevent oneself from the state of war though total human understands and compromise. It is the state of nature itself that leads us to the formation of human nature which sets out rules and laws of living. This includes that selfish nature of human beings and the state of war against this. Since the only way that man can escape from the state of nature is by adopting a state of absolute sovereignty, or risk a return to the state of nature. In the end, while there is doubt about the ability of man to create a personal covenant his characterization to the state of nature is an absolute reason to realize his desires and glory.

Hobbes, T. (2006). <em>Leviathan, Richard Tuck (ed.).</em> Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.