Saturday, 5 November 2016

Business Psychology

Motivation is a state of mind, defined as the willingness of an individual to do something so as to satisfy a need. Among the theories used to explain the phenomena is the basic needs model, referred to as the content theory of motivation. It highlights the specific factors that motivate an individual. The factors can be primary; one cannot do without e.g. food or secondary needs; meant to make life more comfortable e.g. a car. Several scholars came up with different postulates on the theory.
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs which proposes that humans are motivated by multiple needs and this needs exist in a hierarchal order. An individual is believed first to satisfy the needs lower of the hierarchy; first, that is physiological and then move up to the higher levels.
David McClelland postulated the need theory. According to the theory, our actions are influenced by the need for; achievement, power, and affiliations. Achievement is the completion of a task based on personal efforts. Affiliation is the feeling of being accepted to a particular group (fit in). Power is associated with status recognition, competition and influencing others.
Fredrick Herzberg postulated the two-factor theory, that is, factors that have an impact on the workplace motivation which include hygiene factors, for example, working conditions and motivators such as recognition.
A bribe in many cases is paid to an individual so as to look down upon law or to perform/allow an illegal activity e.g. a job applicant paying to be employed. The laws are against bribery, and NO situation in the working environment supports the vice.
However, for other cases away from work it can be advocated for. For example, for a parent to motivate a young one to perform in school they promise a gift e.g. a play station which can be viewed as a form of bribe.
Factors that promote job satisfaction
Locke and Lathan (1976) give a comprehensive definition of job satisfaction as pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience. The factors that influence job satisfaction indirectly improve company’s performance.
Wages and salaries are essential to job satisfaction. Employees are mainly after the reward factor; they, as a result, are more focused on the well-paying tasks.
Staff training, an organization's system may be automated or manually based. Despite the system in play workshops and symposiums to educate the staff more on their roles and create awareness on new trends in the industry. Well-trained staff are highly motivated and find their jobs satisfactory. 
Interesting jobs, people obtain more satisfaction in areas where they can be creative and are not limited by routine. The challenges are new, and they do not stick to procedures. Every day is a learning day.
Recognition for tasks well performed. Where organizations have a system in place that recognizes and awards the top performers for a selected period, they motivate all employees to work towards the task.
Job security; a form of assurance that one job is persistently present. When an individual operates in an environment of certainty, they are highly motivated and perform roles well. They have in mind a notion that they have a long way to go.

Promotion and growth also determine the rate of job satisfaction. Employees do not aim to stay fixed in a particular role and position in the organization for a long time. They seek to move higher in the ranks and up management ranks for greater challenges, experiences and even better pay.

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