Thursday, 23 March 2017

Victimology and Restorative Justice

Discuss in detail the difference between distributive and restorative justice? Retributive justice is more or less what is practiced in the United States. The justice system is oriented mainly toward punishing the offender, not making the victim whole again. In restorative justice, the focus is on the victim. Any penalty assessed on the offender is at least partly paid to the victim, and punishment of the offender is, at best, a secondary goal. Retributive systems occasionally have some restorative components, but they don’t always work well. An offender may be required to pay restitution to the victim in addition to (or in place of) fines, but a lot of fines are never paid. It wouldn’t be any different with restitution. Retributive justice places a primary emphasis on punishment of a wrong committed. “An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” is an example of a retributive punishment. Restorative justice places a primary emphasis on rehabilitating the offender, the victim, and the community. A restorative sentence or punishment could include paying restitution plus treble damages. Restorative justice is a set of principles or values which primarily are focused on how to make right the wrongs. The processes typically require inclusive processes that involve all stakeholders, in an effort to address the harm. Retributive justice is more focused on blaming an offender and focused on him or her receiving their just deserts CITATION Idr10 \l 1033 (Idriss, et al. 2010). Restorative justice is an approach to justice that focuses on the needs of victims and offenders, instead of the need to satisfy the rules of law or the need of the community to give out punishments. Victims are given an active role in a dispute and offenders are encouraged to take responsibility for their actions, “to repair the harm they’ve done-by apologizing, returning stolen money, or (for example) doing community service”. Restorative justice is based on a theory of justice that focuses on crime and wrong doing as acted against the individual or community rather than authorities. Retributive Justice Restorative Justice Misbehaviour/offenses are committed against authorities and are violations of rules of law or policies. Misbehaviour/offenses are defined as acts against victims and the community, which violate people and community trust. Accountability is equated with suffering. If offenders are made to suffer enough (I.e. expulsion or suspension) they have been held accountable. Accountability is defined as taking responsibility for behaviours and repairing the harm resulting from those behaviours. Success is measured by how much reparation was achieved. Offenders are defined by the Misbehaviour/offense. Victim is defined by material and psychological loss. Offenders are defined by their capacity to take responsibility for their actions and change behaviour. Victims are defined by losses and capacity to participate in the process for recovering losses and healing. Misbehaviour/offenses are the result of individual choice with individual responsibility. Offender is accountable to authorities for the misbehaviour or offense. Offender is accountable to the victim and the community. Misbehaviour/offenses are the result of individual choice with individual responsibility. Misbehaviour/offenses have both individual and social dimensions and are the result of individual choice and the conditions that lead to the behaviour. Offenders are defined by the misbehaviour/offense. Victim is defined by material and psychological loss. Offenders are defined by their capacity to take responsibility for their actions and change behaviour. Victims are defined by losses and capacity to participate in the process for recovering losses and healing. Distinguish between primary and secondary victimization. Explain some of the responses of different categories of crime victims to initial victimization. A crime victim is the the person to whom harm was done of who suffered physical or emotional loss as a result of the commission of the offence. Primary victimization is more of a psychological concept than a legal one, but crime and the legal system can cause it. It involves the effects of being a victim and is often directly related to the severity of the crime and how you personally handle it. One person might suffer more serious effects from a mugging than another because one victim might have superior physical and psychological capacities to cope with the ordeal CITATION Can051 \l 1033 (Crime 2005). Secondary Victimization Secondary victimization can involve much of the same trauma and effects as primary victimization, but its distinction is that it’s typically caused by external, not internal, stimuli. Primary victimization is mostly about how you deal with the crime, whereas secondary victimization relates to how those around you deal with it. For example, if you’re maimed as the result of a crime, others might be turned off or alarmed by your appearance. If your job depends on your appearance, you might lose it CITATION Myr06 \l 1033 (Myrstol and Chermak 2006). The National Criminal Justice Reference Service defines secondary victimization as “negative social or societal reaction.” Crime affects everyone differently. Victimization often causes trauma and depending upon the level of trauma that a person has already experienced in their lifetime, crime can be devastating. In general, victimization often impacts people on an emotional, physical, financial, psychological, and social level. One of the responses might be become a victim of crime. They may even pretend that it did not happen at all. These reactions can last for a few moments or they may be present for months and even years. It is not uncommon for victims to assume a ‘childlike’ state and may even need to be cared for by others for some time. It is also common for victims to feel as though the crime occurred when they were in a dreamlike state. Also, victims may be angry with God, the offender, service providers, family members, friends, the criminal justice system, or even themselves. Many victims experience strong desires for revenge or getting even. Hate may even felt by victims. These strong emotions are often disapproved of by the rest of society, which can leave the victim feeling like an outcast. It is certainly justified for victims to feel anger toward the person or people who harmed them. Many victims are frustrated by the feelings of helplessness or powerlessness that surface when the crime takes place. This can be especially true if victims were unable to fend off an offender, call for help or run away. After the crime, victims may continue to feel frustration if they cannot access the support and information that is necessary to their healing. It is common for victims to feel terror or fear following a crime that involved a threat to one’s safety or life, or to someone else a victim cares about. Fear can cause a person to have panic attacks if they are ever reminded of the crime. Fear can last for quite some time following the commission of a crime and under certain circumstances, it can become debilitating. Fear or terror that becomes overwhelming is unhealthy and victims should consult their family physician about it as soon as possible. Another response might be Blaming oneself is common. Many victims believe they were “in the wrong place at the wrong time.” If the victim does not have someone to blame, they will often blame themselves. Guilt is also common when no offender is found. Later on, when reflecting upon the crime, victims might feel guilty for not doing more to prevent what happened. Lastly, some victims will experience ‘survivor guilt’ – they feel guilty that they survived while someone else was injured or even killed. If a loved one is murdered, surviving family and friends may even blame the victim. Some victims may blame themselves, particularly victims of sexual abuse/assault or domestic violence. In crimes involving sexual acts, offenders often degrade the victim by making them do humiliating things. Victims of rape, for example, have long-lasting feelings of “being dirty”, and those feelings cannot be “washed away.” Some victims even feel self-hatred because they believe that they can no longer be loved by those who are close to them. Show how victim precipitation theory and lifestyle theory, explain criminal behaviour in Kenya today Victim-precipitation theory also helps to explain intimate killings when an abusive partner, usually a male, murders his mate. A detailed analysis of Australian homicides revealed male-female homicides to be largely an issue of male control, in which men were provoked either by another man competing for the affections of the same woman or by the woman showing interest in another man: “The overriding theme that runs through these killings is masculine control, where women become viewed as possessions of men, and the violence reflects steps taken by males either to assert their domination over ‘their’ women, or to repel males who they feel are attempting to control their sexual partner.”4 This example demonstrates the care that must be taken when examining the intricate dynamics of interpersonal conflict. Suggesting that abused women who were murdered by their batterers played an active role in their own victimization may be interpreted as victim blaming. Victim provocation, the third dimension of the victim-precipitation theory, has received a lot of research attention. Victim provocation suggests that the victim is the primary cause of his or her victimization. From this perspective, “precipitation criminal events are social interactions that resemble “dramaturgical events.”19 Like actors in a play, the victim and offender engage in a back-and-forth performance, often in front of an audience. But usually the outcome of the criminal event is not scripted. That is, the actions of one actor depend on those of the other, and so the final outcome is not totally predictable. Each actor reads and interprets the other’s actions and then reacts in a manner he or she thinks appropriate. The manner in which people have co-operated in Kenya has led to emergence of some crimes. Some Stories on Kenyan media houses have described instances where people have initiated a skirmish and have got themselves victimised instead. Lifestyle stands as the centrepiece of the theory of personal victimization because it is the patterned routines of a person’s everyday activities that predict the chances of exposure to criminogenic situations. After all, if a victim and an offender never come into contact, a personal victimization cannot occur. In addition to influencing personal victimization directly through exposure to various situational environments CITATION Wim09 \l 1033 (Wimmer and Dominic 2009), lifestyle also affects one’s risk of victimization indirectly by structuring personal associations. That is, the people with whom one associates also determine one’s exposure to risk of personal victimization. People who associate regularly with others engaged in unlawful behaviour are more likely to be victimized, because of their increased exposure to high-risk situations and environments. In Kenya, the lifestyle theory has indicated to the commitment of major crimes. Students from various local universities have been injured and even killed in fighting sprees in pubs and other game-playing stations CITATION Wor06 \l 1033 (Bank 2006). The lavish lifestyles of such people have encountered victimization; therefore, asserting the reality of the lifetime theory. References BIBLIOGRAPHY Bank, World. “Country Social Analysis.” worldbank.org. May 2006. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTSOCIALDEV/Resources/3177394-1168615404141/RepublicofKenya-CountrySocialAnalysis.pdf (accessed August 9, 2015). Crime, Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of. “The Impact of Victimization.” crcvc. October 2005. http://www.crcvc.ca/docs/victimization.pdf (accessed August 9, 2015). Idriss, Manar, Manon Jendly, Jacqui Karn, and Massimiliano Mulone. “INTERNATIONAL REPORT CRIME PREVENTION AND COMMUNITY SAFETY: TRENDS AND PERSPECTIVES.” crime-prevention-intl.org. 2010. http://www.crime-prevention-intl.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Crime_Prevention_and_Community_Safety_ANG.pdf (accessed August 9, 2015). Myrstol, Brad A, and Steven M Chermak. “Victimology.” abiongman.com. 2006. http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/1893/1938583/CH_15_web.pdf (accessed August 9, 2015). Wimmer, Roger D, and Joseph R Dominic. “Research in Media Effects.” October 2009. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=6&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CEMQFjAFahUKEwjd5c7W5pzHAhXBWxQKHXqQDsg&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.rogerwimmer.com%2Fmmr9e%2FMedia%2520Effects%2520MMR%25209e.doc&ei=-7LHVZ38NMG3UfqgusAM&usg=AFQjCNFY6aoyIA (accessed August 9, 2015).

Influences on Zombie Figures

The paper seeks to explain the development of the figure of the zombie and how the Night of the Living Dead reinvents it. The paper also analyzes the zombie as a representation of fear in people. A zombie, according to the voodoo belief, is the supernatural power that enters and reanimates a dead body. The origin of the zombie idea is not easy to trace but it has gained popularity in the modern era. The popularity of the term zombie in the Western culture was due to its use as a metaphor to refer to people lacking consciousness and was a threat to social structures. Servicemen from America who returned from Haiti in the 1920’s and 1930’s have brought home the stories of mindless zombies, black magic and voodoo masters. The zombie stories penetrated the imagination of the American culture. The zombie represented both slave and slave rebellion (Thomas). The Haitian zombie did not exude fear and was obedient and its purpose was to work as a slave. The fear was only for the power held by the creators of the zombies. Night of the living dead and reinventing of the zombie The film Night of the Living Dead that was released in 1968 was a reinvention of the zombie idea and a horror genre. The zombies in the movie are a combination of the zombie, vampire and werewolf. The living dead are shown to eat greedily like werewolves and also transmit a disease by bite like vampires. Unlike the previous stories on zombies, Romero’s movie acknowledges that there is no force from beyond but rather the enemy was the human themselves. The zombies in the movie are physically weak like humans and their strength was in numbers. The movie also provided a scientific explanation why the corpses returned, that resulted from radiation from a spacecraft that had crashed. The zombie characters exhibit no moral responsibility whereby they take part in activities such as cannibalism, paricide and incest. The irresponsible acts of the zombies shattered family and personal relations taboos held by the American culture. The movie has scenes of zombies eating their victims and a daughter killing her mother by stabbing and eating her father. The fact that all the film characters die in the end shows that humans are not perfect and are all vulnerable. The zombie idea symbolizes different fears in the American Culture. In the Haitian voodoo zombie stories they represented a loss of free will as well as consciousness. The control of the zombies by their master indicated them been used as slaves. The Night of the Living Dead is a depressing reminder of own mortality that humans try to outrightly deny. The movie is also an illustration of the fear of humans for the said apocalyptic destruction. The zombies in the movie multiply by transmitting their victims through biting resulting to the victim turning into a zombie. The zombie idea may be seen to measure the amount of anxiety and stress in the American society (Dotson). The zombie as a representation of the fears of Americans The zombie in several ways can be seen to represent the fears of the middle-class Americans. Zombies have in recent years evolved to diverse characters in films, TV shows, novels and video games. The zombies are full of symbolism that can be analyzed in different ways. The product of the entertainment industry directly relates to what people believe in, fear and love in the society where they live. Therefore the rise in popularity of zombies can be connected to the increasing social fears and anxieties. The fears could be in the collapse of social order, pandemics, and untrustworthy authority. Initially in the Haitian zombie stories they represented slavery while the recent time they may symbolize the fears of the working class revolution. The zombie character has no identity and those fighting the zombies are the humans. The fantasy shows the need for survival in the modern times. The unemployed and poor in the American society may be seen to be a threat to the middle class. The revolting of the unemployed is a reason for alarm to the upper classes that create fear. The only way to maintain the pride of the middle class is by protecting with all means the owned wealth. In the film Night of Living Dead the black protagonist was able to survive an ambush, towards the end of the movie, by the zombies. Unfortunately, he was shot the following day by white gunmen. The shooting brings to light the racial inequality and equal rights movement witnessed in America. The existence of a black community in America could be a threat to the white American thus the indication of a need to do away with them. The advancement in technology has greatly affected employment as many people have lost their jobs. The result is a mass of unemployed people who have nowhere to go. The authority tries to contain these people by having them in prisons and other measures. However, these people are increasing in numbers to be included. The increased mass protests and the demonstrations are a sign that the under-privileged are fighting back (Dunne). The Figure Change of the Zombie in the 60’s The movie Night of the Living Dead changed in a big way how the zombie was viewed. The movie showcased new zombie myths such as being portrayed as cannibals. The movie seemed to focus on a culture dealing with uncertainty about actions taking place, motives and their future direction. The zombie had changed the films to horror movies. Initially a zombie was raised from the dead through voodoo witchcraft that also controlled them. The new zombies are not created by the use of supernatural powers but they bite to spread their disease. The zombies are more vicious and horrific. The voodoo zombies were not actually dead but were given a potion to make them unconscious so they could follow commands of their master without questioning. The Romero zombies were rising from the dead and were weak. The zombies are also seen to be associated with blackness. America colonized Haiti where the idea of the zombie was borrowed. Until the 60’s blackness was associated with exoticism, animalism and sometimes to show the inability of black Haitians to govern themselves. The Romero film shows a black character as a hero that was a change from old movies that had blacks acting like mindless zombies. The film conclusion about race relations in America. The movie ended with the hero a black character being shot by whites. A black hero in the movie is debatable to what was the intended meaning. The makers of the film could simply have used the character without prejudice and regarding his race as not important. Historically blackness was associated with the zombie figure. However, the film could also show that humans are their own enemies and not the zombies. The movie shows that if the living worked together then the zombies would not be a threat. The strength in the group of zombies indicates how being united people can fight their problems. The movie conclusion is seen to indicate that the black and whites relation in America is strained. The black character may have indicated the capable leadership relating to American civil rights. However, the shooting of the character may be seen as punishment for a role not deserved as well as the friendship of a black to a white woman (Allkins). The zombies could be a representation of anyone whether a friend, spouse, priest, child or anyone else. An apparent war between us and them is obvious in the films. A concern for social order and economic development is apparent. There is also fear of racial mixing between the white and blacks that would be a threat to the white superior status. The movie represents norms in the society like the unexpected relation between black and white people. Generally the movie is a representation of the society and the problems faced. There is an indication that by working together solution to the problems could be easy to solve. The humans are their own worst enemies.

Works Cited

Allkins, Kyle. ""Those Things" and "You People" issues of racism in Zombie Cinema." http://www2.oakland.edu/oujournal/files/19_thosethings.pdf. 3 May 2015. Dotson, Jennifer Whitney. "CONSIDERING BLACKNESS IN GEORGE A. ROMERO’S NIGHT OF THE LIVING DEAD: AN HISTORICAL EXPLORATION." August 2004. http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-04192006-211101/unrestricted/Dotson_thesis.pdf. 3 May 2015. Dunne, Brad. "Zombie-conomy: Reflections of culture, class and the undead." 31 October 2013. http://rabble.ca/news/2013/10/zombie-conomy-reflections-culture-class-and-undead. 3 May 2015. Thomas, Kette. "Haitian Zombie, Myth, and Modern Identity." June 2010. http://docs.lib.purdue.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1602&context=clcweb. 3 May 2015.

The Jury of her Peers

Female individuals are always in a vulnerable state in most of the society settings in the sense that, most societies overlooks the rights of the female. Indeed, they suffer most when it comes to the times of scenarios such as war as they are always after the children. Further, there is no justice in most of the societies in the world in the manner in which they handle cases that concern the female gender (Glaspell 17). As such, most community settings have rigid stereotypes that do not recognize the role of a woman in a society. Some cultural practices that used to sideline the women interests in the society have changed as some people have become more aware of the human rights that the female have to be granted in any given society level. In addition, the difference in perspective between man and woman sometimes has an impact of marginalizing the female in the community as men are termed to be the most superior gender in a community. Therefore, this has an effect of making the female seem inferior, hence, marginalized as well mishandled at any society that values this aspect. In view of this, the essay seeks to discuss these issues as they apply to any given society. Female Oppression For the purpose of bringing equality into its application, it is vital the every community realizes the role of a woman in a society and gives the room for the female to perform the role with no interference. If this is done well, it will have an effect of bringing justice in a society as every gender will enjoy a fair share of a deal in the community and this will lead to peaceful coexistence in a family. Notwithstanding, most family problems are brought about by the aspects of the fact that men are perceived be more superior to the female. In fact, female are the subject of the men and are therefore expected to submit themselves to men. However, some communities misperceive this fact and, therefore, end up subjecting the women to all forms of hardships. In this view, this essay seeks to discuss the aspects of female oppression, justice, rigid stereotype, and the difference in perspective between men and women. Various books along with journals will be used in the elaboration of these concepts. In the text where such aspects will be drawn from is the one written by a jury of her peers written by Susan Glaspell. The author of a Jury of Her Peers has written many pieces of writing, however, the most outstanding one for those who are concerned with the welfare of the feminine gender is the aforementioned (Buckingham 124). Innately, this story was adapted into a certain play that encompassed the fate of the female in a society whose large dominants are men. As such, this story has attracted the attention of many female scholars as it has well handled the themes that relate to the gender of a person. At the start, the story seems to give a dialog between two women in a given society that appears to be extremely extensive. In actuality, she reveals the stories that underlie a given society whose dominant are the males. In essence, this form of society appears to face numerous forms of conflicts as female feel that they do not receive fair treatments. Thus, they normally struggle to survive in such a community as they do not find any possible way out. Justice As the story starts, there is a controversy that surrounds Minnie Foster Wright, a captive being suspected that she killed her husband by crushing him. Wright's story is not revealed directly as it is told via a conversation that involves Martha Hale, the discoverer of the body belonging to Mr. John Wright along with Mrs. Peters, who is the wife of the resident sheriff. Innately, sheriff requests Mrs. Hale to give them a company as they move to the Wright's home in order to keep his spouse company while the men probe the murder sight. As the conditions bring them together, the women form an instant affiliation as they start collecting some of Minnie's possessions to bring to her in her penitentiary cell. Conclusively, kitchen things are the only things available in the galley that makes men start their search upstairs of the house and in an outhouse. As the start, female are left alone, they begin to notice their evidence about Minnie's possible motive that he foiled her husband. Consequently, Mrs. Hale alongside Mrs. Peters begins to notice details that concern Minnie's life which escape the notification of their companions. They discover that Minnie's secluded existence, the unkempt clothing that she was obliged to wear, her broken furniture, the rundown kitchen where she had to cook and this was all due to her man's miserable inconsiderateness. Ultimately, the two women mishap across two pieces of evidence which pieces Minnie's circumstance together (Mazzarella 212). They plug the circuitous sewing on one of the sheets Minnie was working on, suggesting that she ought to have been angered as she was in an attempt to accomplish her project. Moreover, the precious canary that the two women value, slip away is in a box that she performs her basting operations. Upon the innovation of all these hints, the two female begin a gossip on how Minnie, once friendly and happy, changed into an introvert, isolated woman after wedding her noiseless, emotionless husband. In addition, the two women notice the wrecked axis on the bird pen, gambling that John Wright may have been smothered Minnie's canary; incongruent to the way he slew his consort's spirit by use of his arrogant manner. In effect, they discover the fate of Minnie's strangled canary, the two women speculation that Minnie suppressed her husband as a retaliatory measure as the husband had stifled her canary. As they sympathize with Minnie, the women do not find the significance of notifying their husbands of what they have discovered. As an alternative, they repair the unreliable sewing on Minnie's coverlet and devise a story about the canary's desertion, accusing a fugitive kitten The piece of writing scrutinizes the difficulties of women in a society whereby the males seem to have more influence than the female. Censors are certain that Glaspell whose story has a foundation on a true murder trial whereby women is not permitted to give a service to assessors. In effect, this led to a jury of the female peers in her story to find out their kind of impartiality. Notably, this story his story addresses the issues relating to female subjugation, fairness, the restraining nature of inflexible stereotypes, and the differences in perspective between men and women. All through, men in the story never recognize Minnie Wright's coercion and how it resulted in her to a frantic action. Further, the men's assessment of their wives in the story is weak and only valued as superintendents of the domestic arena, an area the men deliberate irrelevantly. Guaranteed by inflexible stereotypes and the lack of ability engage in Minnie's situation in order to solve the delinquency, the men who are thought to be the prime detectives in the case, lack all the necessary hints and are unintentionally outmaneuvered by their partners. Upon the solving of the case by the two women, they quietly resolve to protect one of their, eventually growing to be their true detectives, the reviewer, and the panel on Minnie's incident. Difference in Perspectives between Men and Women Indeed, Glaspell's play had a significant success as it helped to illustrate themes that face most contemporary community settings. As such, when people read all that she wrote in her copy, they tend to understand certain aspects that are universal to all communities. Therefore, upon reading it now becomes the responsibility of every individual to apply these themes in a more positive manner in the society that they live. Glaspell was compelled to make small alterations so as to adapt nothings in a short story. In this case, she never reveals the main character within her play. In the setting of this play, Minnie becomes a convict of committing a murder case to her husband. Surprisingly, she is guilty of the offense but she never gets anyone to question her action. Innately, three men that comprise of the sheriff who is the county prosecutor along with his neighbor appear to have come in order to collect proofs for the purpose of substantiating the said trial. Consequently, two women who are the wives of the sheriff and neighbor respectively appear to escort the men. Indeed, their motive is to pick up the effects to their female counterpart by the name Minnie. Glaspell competently demonstrates how the men and women appear at the household level. Whereas the male appears to seek substantial proofs to prosecute the accused, the two females appear on the trivialities such as a messy home, an uneven quilting array, and a repressed canary. Subsequently, they resolve that this particular information is a sign of Minnie's inspirations for the assassination. On the same note, the women converse openly concerning Minnie's offensive and dictatorial husband along with discussing the reason that make them empathize with her frantic action. As well, the author constructs a courtroom in the Iowa homestead, and the ladies become assessors who resolve that Minnie is innocent. Moreover, their judgment is based on compassion and humanity other than doing that on legality. Accordingly, for the respect of Minnie's long endurance of sufferings, the two women resolve not to reveal their proofs to their male counterparts. Besides, Martha Hale bakes bread one cold hike morning at the time when the region's most strange humiliation evicts away from her own kitchen. As such, she seems to have been requested by Sheriff Peters to help his spouse in collecting individual possessions to Minnie Wright the one he has incarcerated on a notion of slaying her companion. Next, Martha moves to the Wrights' secluded homestead along with husband by the name Lewis as well as Peters, and George Henderson who is the county's attorney. Then, she recesses prior to the overpass of the threshold along with being astounded with remorse since she had never stayed in the twenty years Minnie who was her infancy acquaintance seems to have been wedded. As a result, she apprehensively listens to her hubby designate approaching to the Wright residence on their inaccessible country road in the prior night. Since his intents are to persuade John Wright so that he can acquire a phone and share the fitting expenses; Martha is optimistic that her husband will not convict Minnie but, however, his comments suggest that Wrights were not favorably married. Additionally, George Henderson takes proceedings as Mr. Hale tells how Mrs. Wright sat impassively stunning in her seat and replied peculiarly to his appeal to meet her hubby. As well, she serenely retorted that even though he was at home, he would remain quiet as he was not alive. As she gathers her overall, she says that he died of a cord around his neck while he was sleeping in the bed with her. Henceforth, she did not know who did it as she was asleep on the inside and she dozed deeply. The fact that Minnie murders her husband appears apparently to the county attorney general though without her acknowledgment. In fact, he is aware that a panel will want to be fixed evidence, particularly when judging a woman for a killing case. As she seeks an indication of an intention, the sheriff stares around at the bakery things and Mr. Hale remarks with a tenor of dominance that women concern over nothings. As she reacts sensitively to the men's arrogance, Martha and Mrs. Peters instinctively move next to each other to defend their neighbor in a manner that suggests that they were true friends. Later, Mr. Hale queries whether the women would even recognize a sign in case they came on it; the males leave the galley to solve the unknown. Rigid Stereotype When it comes to the time of piecing together the mystery it is noted that the two women infer from minute facts, such as dropped sugar that was not washed off the tabletop, as this is supposed to have taken place at the time John Wright was slayed. As they conclude, they remark that John was miserly as a result of Minnie's wrecked stove as well as the much-revamped clothes. Abruptly, Martha apprehends that Minnie formerly a dynamic girl who wore attractive outfits and buzzed in the chorale, reserved to herself after matrimonial since she was humiliated of her scruffy advent. Next, Mrs. Peters apprehends that an individual becomes disheartened and mislays her heart after a long period of seclusion. On the basis of Minnie's pending issues, Martha requests Mrs. Peters whether she understood it was to be quilted or tangled. Accordingly, the males at this juncture comes as they laugh at the trivial inquiry about the coverlet, Mr. Hale contemptuously repeats the procedure. In the instance that encompasses the three men leaving for the outhouse, the women explore extra hints. Henceforth, Mrs. Peters understands unreliable darns as being different from the even darning of the other fragments. Immediately, Martha pulls out the bumpy darns, notwithstanding Mrs. Peters' caution about moving anything. Further, they reminiscence how Mrs. Wright on one occasion sang gorgeously, and they contemplate that she had no doubt of the canary since they get to have a look at the birdcage. Although they look for Minnie's basting things to take them to the prison for her, they notice that her canary is wrapped up in a piece of silk with its neck squeezed. Accordingly, as they attempt to reason out that John ought to have aggressively ragged off the henhouse entry axis and silenced the twittering canary by soaking its neck which inspires the men to make a return. Devoid of plotting any association, the women automatically obscure the numb bird in the darning basket and make justifications dissuade the men's consideration. At the time she is once more unaccompanied with Mrs. Peters, Martha defines her anger at the time a youngster once took a hatchet to her kitten when she was a teenager. At that moment, Mrs. Peters confesses her isolation as she homesteads in secluded Dakota upon the death of her baby. Her recon is on how the men would laugh to pick up their talk about such trifles as a deceased canary. Towards the end of the story, the story denotes Henderson as a person who fails to come up with a cause to look guilty evidence. Additionally, inappropriately comments that in the end find out that Mrs. Wright was not in a position to throw away the material; he asks the ladies to recap the precise darning procedure that was revealed previously. Conclusion In conclusion, the illustrations that are revealed by the journal give an account of how people should live in a community. It just happens indirectly as the negatives are the issues that are more discussed in this book. Discussion on how family matters are supposed to be handled in a subject that has been greatly found the center of this discussion. In effect, the contemporary issues that can face any given community are well described in the essay as prescribed from the text that was under discussion. Any given society should look at the theme of female oppression in the said society so that all people can exercise a good lifetime. In fact, a community that comprise of reader who can take time and read all that the article encompasses would find it healthy in the long run. In actuality, aspects such as justice are also discussed apparently, as that the current societies are faced with the problems that relate to the issues of injustices. In this regard, people should consider the application of the themes that entails fairness and justice. Additionally, the sources that can provide on how justice can be conveyed to a community should be well used by those who claim that they have got the ability to handle issues that concern the other people. As such, it will be possible to impact effective forms of justices in the society and this will serve to the advantage of the individuals that comprise of the said community. Furthermore, the issue of fixed stereotypes along with the issue of the differences in perspective between men and women in any given society will simply encompass all that has been discussed in the essay. Innately, it is crucial for any given community to evolve and not adapt a rigid culture that cannot be altered as per the prevailing circumstances. The cultural practices that are adopted by any society should encompass good values in that particular community. Works Cited Buckingham, David. Youth, identity, and digital media. Washington: MIT Press, 2010. Print. Glaspell, Susan. Trifles. Washington: Baker's Plays, 2010. Print. Mazzarella, Sharon R. Girl Wide Web 2.0: Revisiting Girls, the Internet, and the Negotiation of Identity. Washington: Peter Lang, 2010. Print.

The Movement of Enlightenment in Europe from 1650-1780

The age of enlightenment was a period in early modern history where western societies made a shift from a religious based authority to one of scientific reason. The age embodied tremendous social and intellectual advancements. Centred in the 18th Century, the enlightenment intellectual movement was one that had its roots in philosophy and more importantly within the western philosophy. Despite the international scope of the movement it was more centred in France, which had assumed an unprecedented leadership in European intellectual life. It is a movement that marked a rise of the western influence in Europe from 1650-1780. Great thinkers in France, Britain and all over Europe began questioning traditional authority and started embracing the notion that humanity can be improved through rational change. European politics, science, philosophy, and communications were re-oriented during the course of the enlightenment movement. As a result of the enlightenment movement, Europe’s sense of identity was defined and shaped. Through the movement, numerous inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions, essays, and books were produced. Since there existed no unified Enlightenment, this essay will focus on the movement of Enlightenment in Europe from 1650-1780. This historical time frame existed when Isaac Newton published his Principia Mathematica and John Locke, who published his work: essay concerning Human Understanding. The two works formed the basis in a scientific, mathematical and philosophical sense for the enlightenment’s major advances. The essay will also focus on how the enlightenment movement shaped Europe’s sense of identity in religion, science, politics, social science, and imaginative literature. Origins of the Enlightenment movement The movement can be regarded as the third and the last phase of the process by which European thought and intellectual life was modernized in the early modern period. What preceded the movement were the stages of Renaissance and Reformation. Its relation to the two stages was relatively paradoxical since the Enlightenment represented their cancellation and fulfilment. The enlightenment marked the moment that the spell of the Renaissance which was the conviction of absolute superiority of ancient times over modern civilization was broken (ushistory.org). The revolt against cultural and intellectual authority through the Enlightenment movement was very dramatic. As a result, the critique by the Protestants against the Catholic Church for its exploitation of its charges through ideological delusion was extended to Christian religion. Other than religion, the Enlightenment marked the period at which the most fundamental extreme sources of intellectual authority in Greco-Roman, Europe, and Judeo-Christian were overthrown. What made this intellectual liberation possible was the fact that, the primary thinkers of the Enlightenment were clear of the origins of their own set of ideas. These ideas could be traced back to the set of pioneers from the mid-seventeenth century. The founders had one thing in common in that they all had the idea of the willingness to depart from the tradition in one domain of thought after another. The result for this was the development of the most advanced though of the 17th Century which was popularized in the course of the eighteenth Century. The Impact of Enlightenment in Europe             During the late 17th Century and the early 18th Century, scientists like Isaac Newton began challenging the old order. Newton’s law of gravity and motion explained the world in a more natural law rather than a spiritual one beyond any spiritual force or being. On the other hand, Locke a writer made clear the point of changing a government that never protected natural rights of life, liberty, and property. People began to question the existence of God who could predestine human beings to eternal condemnation and put into place a tyrant for a king (ushistory.org). Through these ideas, Europe could be forever changed since the ideas formed its sense of identity. American intellectuals also read these ideas. Religious leaders began to change the old outdated ideas and positions. An emphasis on similarities rather than the differences between the Anglican Church and the Puritan Congregationalists began. The Massachusetts minister who was a strong advocate on existence of witches advocated for the use of science to immunize citizens against Smallpox. Harvard ministers also became very liberal such that there was the creation of Yale College which was founded with an aim of retaining the old Calvinist ideas. By the end of the Century, England ministers became so Unitarian that they started doubting the divinity of Christ. The old way of life was defined through superstition, absolute submission to authority, and an angry God. However, the enlightened movement brought in a new way of thinking that championed the accomplishments of humankind. Individuals did not have to feel desperate since Science and reason could be a source of happiness and progress. Kings no longer ruled through divine right but on the basis that they had a obligation and a duty towards their subjects. Europeans have since pondered through the implications of the enlightenment movement. The paragraphs that follow will explain the main ideas behind the enlightened movement and how Europe was defined by those events and ideas. Ideas behind the Enlightenment Movement             Prior to the enlightenment period religion was the dominant political force across Europe (Israel). The Catholic Church had established tremendous spiritual authority during the middle ages. Such authority is evidenced through the powerful investiture controversy that existed in the 11th Century. Despite the force that came with the enlightenment movement monarchs still tried to legitimise their authority using religion. However, the age of reason challenged the supremacy of religion in both the political and social life of the people of Europe. Hostility towards established forms of religion is regarded as the most commonly associated idea of the enlightenment. Conversely, the movement is characterized as where modern paganism has its roots. A majority of those who adhered to the movement were wholly averse to the idea of theism. They criticized the belief in miracles and all forms of divine intervention, the status accorded to the Bible and all claims associated with Christ’s divinity. Ardent followers of the movement were of the opinion that, Catholic and Protestant traditional churches were forms of institutional oppression and exploitation (Israel). Generally, the enlightened opinion of the great thinkers opted for the compromise of natural religion. Their opinion received a deal of sincere devotion in many different forms. Therefore, the enlightenment movement played a significant role in shaping the modern day religious identity in Europe and the whole country’s identity in general. Through demotion of religion in Europe by the Enlightenment movement, there was promotion of Science (Israel). Natural philosophy as dictated by Newton began to spread across Europe based on the fact that Mathematics was the new universal language. The thought of Aristotle referred to as the Aristotelian thought was replaced by better and more accurate observations. Scientists made efforts to explain phenomena’s rather than devising complex theories. In the field of medicine, the old idea of humours came to an end and medical practitioners developed numerous ways of looking at the body and physiology in functional ways. Theories in medicine were done away with as the discovery of the microscope aided the physicians in physiological ways of looking at the body. On the other hand, alchemy lost its touch in its mystical and occult symbolism where a majority of the alchemists became physicists and chemists. Astrology’s influence also declined as a result of the invention of the telescope and Newtonian Physics transforming form astrology to astronomy. Astronomy took a much pragmatic role in trying to explain the universe. The new approach to knowledge also paved way to industrial revolution where geologists and engineers started to find coal and metal ores in order to start mass production of goods. The 17th Century saw a profound revolution in political thought. The revolution was marked by the emergence of the modern natural rights tradition of Locke, Hobbes, Grotius, and Pufendorf. A primary achievement during this era was popularizing and disseminating this tradition through summaries, translations, and commentaries. By the 18th Century, natural rights, state of nature, and civil society which were all encompassed in the natural rights tradition entered into the Enlightenment political thought. The thought embraced wholly the idea that, the only legitimate basis of political authority was consent. Locke was of the idea that authority is derived from the consent of the governed. Before that people had the notion of the divine right of kings where nobody except God or the Pope could tell what a king ought to do or should do. In the sense of political politics, a majority of the thinkers during the enlightenment embraced a monarch type of administration which is still the dominant state-form in Europe. The enlightenment movement viewed Classical era of Rome and Greece as a model for contemporary life. People like Johann Winckelmann regarded ancient Greece as a place where male friendship was celebrated, nudity encouraged and the male form admired (Israel). The fascination of ancient Greece led to the production of homoerotic poetry as translation from Greek to European languages. During this age of enlightenment, there was an increased sexual frankness that saw the production of numerous Pornographic materials and works of erotic acts. The most notable pornographic work was by John Cleland which featured graphics of both male and female homosexuality. Sex was also introduced in many other genres, opening a new era of candidness in matters related to sex. In addition, numerous cities during the enlightenment started acting upon homoerotic ideals. Particularly, male prostitution networks prospered in London and Paris. Through imaginative literature, enlightenment ideas were expressed and communicated. Poetry, plays, and fiction were the primary vehicles for the expression of these ideas. In Europe, the torchbearers of enlightenment literature and philosophy were Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Jean was a strong advocate for social reforms of all kinds who invented the autobiography as it is known today. However, his most remarkable work was Emile a piece of non-fiction that argued for extensive and liberal education as a means for creating good citizenship. Jean’s work would remain influential in Europe and the entire world even after his passing. Voltaire on the other hand employed dry wit and sarcasm to entertain his readers while still making a conviction argument for reforms. Voltaire is considered as the pen name of Francois-Marie Arouet. The pen name shielded him from persecution which his writings strongly advocated for and encouraged. Voltaire used the terms intolerant and backward when referring to the churches during that time portraying his harsh criticism in his work. Voltaire and Jean are well-known for their works of literature that promulgated Enlightenment philosophy for the sake of making the world a better and fairer place. The fairness that exists in Europe today was shaped through literature works and ideas by writers and poets such as Jean and Voltaire who contributed to Europe’s sense of identity. In conclusion, it is clear that the enlightenment have changed Europe and the entire world, just as much as the Reformation and the Renaissance before it. It has defined Europe across all fields including; religion, science, politics, social science, and imaginative literature. However, the change has not been easy since it has been interwoven in intended and unintended consequences. There is still no sign that the enlightenment is over unlike the Renaissance and the Reformation periods. The era of intellectual modernization through the enlightenment movement is far from over since there exist no intellectual movement that has yet to surpass it. The movement has attracted massive support and advocacy whose aim is to defend its political and intellectual legacy. The most famous promoter of the enlightenment movement today is Jurgen Habermas who has constantly urged the Left to embrace what he terms as the unfinished business of the enlightenment. Kant who is one of the great thinkers during the period answered the question of whether we live in an enlightened age by saying that we do not live in an enlightened age but in an age of enlightenment. Therefore, more change and a new Europe could be coming. Works Cited Israel, Jonathan I. Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity 1650-1750. New York: Oxford New York, 2001. ushistory.org. “The Impact of Enlightenment in Europe.” 2015. 23 April 2015 .

Logitech’s Global Value Chain

Logitech’s global value chain Configuration of the Logitech’s global value chain. The value chain involves a company conversion of raw materials into outputs that are usable by adding value to them. The value chain activities can be categorized into primary and support. The primary activities include manufacturing, inbound and outbound logistics, as well as sales and service. The support activities are procurement, firm infrastructure, management of human resource, and technology development. A global value chain is depicted by a company locating different activities of their work in different countries that maximize the efficiency of the value chain. The global value chain enables a company to increase its competitiveness among other companies. The company gains access to global resources and skills, costs are considerably creating value more effectively. However, proper management is required as the dispersed activities of the global value chain can lead to success or failure of the company (Waehrens, Riis, & Johansen, 2011). Logitech company was founded in 1981 in Switzerland but has spread out its activities in different countries. The headquarters is in California, manufacturing done in Taiwan, productions done in China, with parts being supplied from Malaysia and America. Logitech managed to increase its productions because of the globalization and was able to win prestigious customers like Apple and IBM. Each of their activities are spread out in different countries with consideration of low costs and high volume. Such kind of success can only be achieved through efficient operation management. The need for Logitech to gain more customers is a reason why they have to innovate their systems. Affordable and skillful labor in China has enabled the Logitech company to have more productions. Research and development is a key element to attaining global economies of scale. The company has kept the key element in their home country. The overseas investments are in countries with low wages and reasonable stable environment. The globalization of the company has resulted in the company to being the world’s largest known producers of computer mice. Question 2 The extent to which the different trade theories explain Logitech’s configuration of its global value chain. Trade theories seek to explain how and why countries involve themselves in international trade and the implications of the trade. International trade theories simply explain international trade. The trading, benefit people or entities in different ways. There are factors that are used by businesses or companies to their interests (University, 2015). Because of the international a company is able to manufacture and export products they can effectively produce and, import products effectively produced in other countries.
  1. A list of different theories that have a bearing on the Logitech case.
  2. Comparative advantage theory
  3. Absolute advantage theory
  • New trade theory
  1. Porter’s Diamond theory
  2. Heckscher-Ohlin theory
  3. Relevance of the theories in explaining the configurations of Logitech’s global value chain
In the 19th century David Ricardo an economist recognized that a nation may be good at producing all products but would be more efficient by specializing in one (Christopher & Daco, 2012). The international trade has been revolutionized by technological advancements, connectivity, liberalization of trade and globalization. Differences in the opportunity costs of production explain the comparative advantage theory. The theory applies where a country is able to produce goods at a small opportunity cost than another country. The comparative advantage has seen countries specializing in production of goods that they are able to produce at low costs that increase productivity. The comparative advantage helps a country know what they can specialize in. The specialization can be on what they do best while outsourcing the rest of the activities. Availability of low cost labor in a country can lead the country specializing in production of goods that require lower costs. A country with capital availability will specialize in activities requiring large amounts of finances (Suranovic, 2015). In the Logitech case the high productions in China at a low cost is a comparative advantage to the company. Absolute advantage in a country’s production applies when they are able to efficiently produce goods more than other countries. Therefore, absolute advantage refers to differences in productivity of countries. When a country requires less quantity input to make productions they are considered to have an absolute advantage. The absolute advantage is based on a country or company being able to produce effectively at the same time using minimal resources (Rodrigue, 2013). In the Logitech case, China availability of cheap labor is an example of an absolute advantage. The distribution of operations in different countries where each country is great at performance of a particular operation is an absolute advantage. The opening of a company in Taiwan takes advantage of the absolute theory. In Taiwan there is skilled labor, an expanding computer industry and provision of space in a science-based industrial park. The absolute advantage helps a company gain a competitive advantage over rival companies. The company is able to spend less while making profits because of the distribution of activities. The new trade theory suggests that countries can benefit from trade with each other even when they do not have differences in resources and technology. This theory supports the first movers’ advantage. The theory highlights the importance of geographical location of a company. The location preference is close to customers and suppliers to help lower transportation costs. Large population areas make a good center for production. The new trade theory also focuses on the individual characteristics of a company. Therefore, the theory recognizes that there can be variations between companies. The best companies expand replacing the weaker firms which results to higher productivity (Sydor). This is relevant to the Logitech case because it was able to win prestigious customers like Apple who were buying their mice from the Alps, a Japanese firm. Therefore, Logitech was able to compete over the Alps firm by expanding in Taiwan, where they could produce more at low costs. The Heckscher-Ohlin theory suggests that a comparative advantage is because of national endowment factors. The factors include labor, land, or capital. Using this theory countries are able to produce goods whose production require their most abundant resources. The theory allows for trade to be influenced by factor endowment and not just differences in technology. International outsourcing in a country provides economical access to production technologies that are new. The outsourcing provides inputs that were previously not present (Egger, 2002). In the case of Logitech China provides labor while a country like Taiwan has space in the industrial park and skilled personnel. The theory is relevant to the Logitech company as they have outsourced most of their activities to different countries. The outsourcing helps in creating a quality product at a low cost. Combined with high productivity in a low wage country they are able to sell their product at a cost that is not pricey. The Porter diamond theory looks into the factors that make some regions have certain industries. There are six factors in the theory that include, factor condition, public policy, home-country demand, competitiveness, supporting and related industries and chance. The factor condition explains why some regions may have particular industries. The factors such as natural and created endowments to some extent affect the activities in the region. The size and nature of product demand in a home country influence industry development. The demand also plays a major role in a company’s potential in seeking a global position. Related support industries help shape an company because of presence of suppliers and providers of a product. When a home industry is competitive with other domestic industries it has a high chance of being successful globally. Public policy and chance are the last components of the model. Incentives, infrastructure, subsidies and protection are government policies that can nature global industries. The chance component is influenced by entrepreneurial initiative being present, occurrence of scientific breakthrough as well as sheer luck (Kluyver, 2015). The Logitech company is seen to consider these factors in distributing their activities to regions that do well in particular industries.
  1. Theories that best explain the Logitech’s global value chain.
Comparative and absolute advantage theories can be used to explain how Logitech’s global operations are configured. The comparative theory says that a country benefits when involved in trade even when there is absolute advantage where they produce all goods. A lot of their products are manufactured in China, where they employ 4,000 people. Manufacturing done in China is cost effective because of a large population of people living in semi-urban areas. Therefore, the government would allow for foreign companies to help in the population earning of a livelihood. The mass manufacturing enables employment of many people. The mass productions help cater for the mass consumption of the Logitech products. The presence of good infrastructure and connectivity plays a role in the global supply chain. Specialized services such as sorting and packaging, quality control, simple manufacturing and processing, are carried out in China. The activities are possible because of the availability of cheap labor. Some manufacturing is also done in Taiwan where there are industrial parks. The parks solve the problem of acquiring land for the investors. High-value-added products can be found in the industrial environment. Industrial grouping is a hub for skilled labor. In Taiwan there are qualified people with an expanding computer industry. Launching of new products is done in Taiwan as well as operations management. Logitech takes advantage of the facilities in Taiwan to produce quality products. Employing Taiwanese skilled staff avoids the cost of training staff in their home country for productions. The industrial parks provide a strong demand base for parts of a computer. Therefore, the manufactured products are also consumed in the same place. The industrial parks also mean that the company will not need to start from scratch in a foreign country. Rather the company uses existing facilities to their advantage of making more productions. Basic research and development is done in Switzerland and California. Retaining some of the basic activities in Switzerland is an important strategy. The country is known for precision industry and have the right talent to develop the software used in mice. The company in California provides Logitech with an opportunity to interact with other companies. The research and development carried out in California has the advantage of emerging technologies because of the Silicon Valley. By moving its headquarters to California, the company was trying to have a good image of their company and avoid the effects of country of origin. The designing firm in Ireland is used for ergonomic design. The advantage is that the ergonomic society in the country is active in promoting concerns of the human being characteristics. The discovery of the knowledge is used in designing devices of all kinds. The Porter's diamond theory can also be used to explain Logitech’s global value chain. The factors in the theory apply to locations where the company plants are located. The availability of related and supporting industries in Silicon Valley and Taiwan is an advantage to the company. The industries help Logitech stay in touch with modern technology and new innovations. Rivalry between similar producing goods companies help maintain healthy competition. The competition results in production of high quality goods at a good price. Factor conditions such as the availability of cheap labor in China could have facilitated setting a plant in the country. Presence of industrial parks in Taiwan is an aiding factor in the setting of Logitech branch in the country. The availability of ready suppliers in China also creates a high demand for the Logitech products. China also provides modern factories and state of the art technology and equipment. The home based factors are seen in the Logitech case to influence their setting of plants in countries with favorable conditions.

            References

Christopher, C. G., & Daco, G. (2012). Ricardo's "comparative advantage" still holds true today. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from http://www.supplychainquarterly.com/columns/20121001-ricardos-comparative-advantage-still-holds-true-today/. Egger, H. (2002). International Outsourcing in a Two-Sector Heckscher-Ohlin Model. Journal of Economic Integration , 687 - 709. Kluyver, C. (2015). 2.3 Clustering: Porter’s National Diamond. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from http://catalog.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/reader/5579?e=dekluyverglobstrat_1.0-ch02_s03. Rodrigue, J.-P. (2013). Transportation, Globalization and International Trade. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch5en/conc5en/ch5c2en.html. Suranovic, S. M. (2015, January 12). International Trade theory and Practice. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from http://internationalecon.com/Trade/Tch40/T40-0.php. Sydor, A. (n.d.). Global Value Chains: Impacts and Implications. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from http://www.international.gc.ca/economist-economiste/assets/pdfs/research/TPR_2011_GVC/02_Editors_Overview_e_FINAL.pdf. University, N. C. (2015). What Is International Trade Theory? Retrieved May 20, 2015, from https://new.edu/resources/what-is-international-trade-theory. Waehrens, B. V., Riis, J. O., & Johansen, J. (2011, August 29). Supply Chain Configuration Revisited – Challenges and Strategic Roles for Western Manufacturers. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from http://www.intechopen.com/books/supply-chain-management-new-perspectives/supply-chain-configuration-revisited-challenges-and-strategic-roles-for-western-manufacturers#SEC1.

Bilingual Studies Contribution to Language Study

Bilingual Studies Contribution to Language Study Introduction The today society, culture is dynamic and incorporates the use of more than one language that is intercultural communication. Communication is a leader in a community that understands, that is intimate and has values. Therefore understanding the impact of such language use helps in understanding the language itself and the power it has in multicultural society. For instance, those that speak more than one language for instance bilinguals can switch code or even better mix their language during conversation thus enhancing intimacy and understanding. However, their grammatical rules when it comes to code-switching thus a speaker is not allowed to just point a discourse to switch from one language to the next. For instance, this is how one would switch from one language to another (Roberto, 1997, p. 36); (1) I want a car rouge. (rouge ‘red’) (2) I want a rouge car. (rouge ‘red’) The French word Rouge in the example above in English means Red. In the first sentence, the adjective “rouge” follows a bilingual speaker’s grammatical rule used during code switching. So if we use the rules governing the first sentence, it just means the second sentence is grammatically wrong. Language switching is only possible if the noun and the adjectives follow the rule of the adjective. In the example, the French grammatical rule is followed by the adjective in the sentence is French (Roberto, 1997, p. 36). (Adendorff, 1996, p. 390)Disagrees with a notion about code switching that indicates that a linguistic deficit in the comprehension in bilingual speakers is the switching of code. The study aiming to investigate the functions of code-switching occurring in a particular bilingual society is meaningful if switching of the code is a functional behavior. Culture has a significant role in language this is because cultural practices of an individual community profoundly relate to a language of a particular speech community thus culture and language most often influence each other. It is then true to say aspects of culture influence speaker’s language behaviors. There is a high correlation between language and cultural issues such that any small change in cultural aspect corresponds a language change so as to incorporate such cultural changes. That is why the purposes, functions of code choices and code-switching varies in different cultures, language communities, or in various social situations. The today global world calls for more than one language, for instance, the U.S lack of knowledge about foreign cultures and foreign languages and this threatens the security of the country, and it hinders the effort to compete in the international market. The U.S. education system has further inhibited the growth of language in their school systems as the system places little value on speaking other languages other than English or even understanding culture other than once own. The September 11, 2001, events compelled the federal government to realize the communication skills in the US were wanting, and there was the need to have more than one language use in school. It is very unrealistic for a government to focus only on national need alone. To strengthen the American businesses, to enhance the economy then it is crucial; to improve language skills and involve cultural expertise in the implementation process. Further, the government needs to build capacity to ensure schools can teach other languages (National Research Council, 2007, p. 1). Literature Review Research reveals that for bilingual speakers to achieve particular communication goal then code switching becomes a crucial tool. Therefore indicate that Code-switching is not in any way a deficit of language and in fact it is a sensitive measure of the abilities of bilingual as it proceeds from an area in the bilingual grammar where the surface structure of language one and style of language two overlap (Gumperz, 1982, p. 953).According to Pollack who attributes a variety of her functions to code switching, indicates that other factors such as age, sex, of a two language speaker contribute to the occurrence of code switching. Further, Gumperz looks at the code switching use in social functions. He reveals that there six primary function that code-switching plays in any conversation. They include Reiteration: It allows repetition of a message in other codes through clarification of what is said thus increasing perlocutionary utterance effect, Qualification of a message: Here using other systems preceding statements get elaborations. Also, include Specification of addresses: In this case, the code can select a particular address among many addresses and thus sending the message to the right address and Interjections: Here system switch is used to mark fillers. Further, allows Objectification vs. Personalization: Using contrast, the speaker level of involvement in what is said is shown using this function, and finally, Quotations: To report another person’s utterances code switching occur allowing direct quotes (Gumperz, 1982, p. 595). Another study done by Bialystok focuses on various communication strategies used by non-native speakers (NNSs). The plans include transliteration, language switching, and foreignzing native language. Strategies that have a basis in the target language and incorporate certain features that are unique to the intended code as the best strategies. Also, she looks at the best users of this strategy, and according to her the best users are those that have the proficiency that is formal and adequate in the language target and for purposes of conveyance of a particular concept can carry out strategic selection modification (Bialystok, 1983, p. 104). Some studies indicate that code switching is not so much of skill but is much of a problem a user faces while trying to communicate in a target language. The studies indicate that when a user faces problems in speech production, then such a user results to strategies of reduction or apply an achievement strategy. Some of the avoidance strategies include Formal reduction plan: Commonly used by users that intend to avoid non-fluent word production or simply just want to avoid incorrect utterance. The other avoidance strategy is Functional Reduction Strategy: Here the speaker of the language may just decide to change the message, he/ she may also choose to abandon the message. Also, the speaker can reduce the model and at times results in the reduction of propositional content. When it comes to avoiding a language by use of an achievement strategy the user is forced to get creative. Performance plan requires the user to expand his resource communication that uses compensatory strategy, which includes switch of code, interlanguage based strategies, transfer, restructuring, paraphrasing, word coinage, co-operative strategy and non-linguistic strategy (Bialystok, 1983, p. 112). To understand code switching, bilingual then it is crucial also to learn more about communication strategy. There is a difference between sociolinguistic competence and communication strategy. The study insists that communication strategies use is when there is a lack of scientific system thus a tool of compensation. Such strategies have disregard for the appropriateness of a situation as they allow the change in message transmission. On the other hand, sociolinguistic competence assumes the interlocutors share some knowledge. The study suggests the use of the following criteria for the purpose of communication strategy definition. The first thing is in communication is the desire to communicate, there is an assumption by the speaker that the sociolinguistic or linguistic structures are available. The speaker can decide not to communicate meaning X that is avoidance, or the speaker can choose an alternative message to deliver. The speaker wanting to take an alternative is okay as long as there no share meaning with the original meaning. Further studies indicate that speaker can make choices. The study utilizes the markedness model of code-switching that show that speakers of a language are well aware of social consequences of their decisions thus a speaker is allowed to consider the opportunities. The four motivation for the use of this model requires viewing code switching as a sequence of options not marked, as an option that allows exploration, as CS itself not marked or marked (POPLACK, 1980, p. 583). As much as early literature characterized code switching as random, most researchers now appear to agree that in many aspects it is governed by rules and the only problem is the lack of census on the precise nature of the rules involved. Moreover, the limitations that are intended are not general thus cannot allow an individual to ascribe to linguistic universals. The suggested code switching constraints which when combined are general enough to account for all instances of systems switching. The morpheme free restriction gets changed after a constituent in discourse as long as the constituent is not bond. Thus, it holds true for all linguistic levels but not the phonological (POPLACK, 1980, p. 615). Research is limited when it comes to showing the impact of code-switching on the development of bilingual children. However, recent studies revealed that children between the ages of 18-and-24 monthsdevelop smaller vocabulary due to parents’ code mixing. Also, children at an early age of 20 –months are indicating signs of understanding bilingual; such children have processing patterns like those of their parents. Thus, a strong indication that it is possible for code-mixing to start at a very tender age and a bilingual can cope with code mixing at that age. Further, as much as code mixing technique proves difficult to master it is bring fourth cognitive benefits in future (Byers-Heinlein, 2013). DISCUSSION Bilingual’s two languages support the connection between two words in that there is a neutral system in bilingual brains which allow both languages semantic processes. Therefore, it crucial; to understand that linguistic systems basis is similar conceptual system and a strong indication that the systems are not in a way independent from each other. Research suggest that a bilingual from a very young age learns to associate an appropriate language with a particular person. Further, due to the way the children understand and associate an appropriate language with a person they tend to enhance communication by acting as brokers of communication. As communication brokers’ children are keen not just to transmit the information but to ensure it is translated culturally. Other studies indicate that use bilingual to enhance and enrich themselves not just culturally but to achieve better communicative goals thus such a bilingual especially a child will seek translations for communicative need. Also. Take a lot of time to compare and build on their bilingual lexicon by translating to themselves and code-switching between themselves. It seems appropriate then to include strategies that young bilingual use to increase and enhance their competence in linguistics in language learning strategies that learners use in acquiring a second language( Bazani, p. 48). Using plurilingual approach code-switching can give students a chance to link varieties in linguistics simultaneously. Such a relationship gets regarded as a linguistic phenomenon it is possible to substitute a word or a phrase in another language, express a concept with no equivalent, or just clarify appoint in translation form through altering of language. Vocabulary learning is a cognitive task that can prove to challenge as it requires a lot of process loading, therefore, code-switching if used facilitates FL learning in that it reduces the processing easing learning. Further, the code switching ability to help in learning has psychological support where the perspective ascertains that code-switching does indeed send positive signs to a child. A child responds to his or her language and in a way is also able to enhance communication ( Bazani, p. 48). Lastly, to connect bilingualism to the field of Second Language Acquisition. Cognitive perspective suggests that across languages there is underlying proficiency in cognitive-academics that allow transfer of academic that is cognitive or skill that is literacy related from one language to at least 49 other languages (Cummins, 2007). Cumming hypothesis suggests that to transfer knowledge from one language to another then there is need to have prior experience where such knowledge matching with incoming information takes place. Meaning that prior knowledge is mediated through the L1 as long as prior knowledge gets encoded in the student L1. The principle does not in any way suggest that clear attempt to activate prior awareness of a student and insisting on building a background knowledge limits the L2 articulation, but it gives support that is sufficient and evidence that is theoretical in nature for the use of both L2 and L1 (Cummins, 2007). Practically as per research it is possible to implement L1 activities in the teaching of L2 plans, thus allowing language teachers practical examples. In a multilingual classroom translation is included in bilingual/multilingual activities where phrase books that are bilingual are used, and also resources that are audiovisual as well as contrasting, reading and even bilingual poems, drama, stories, and emails and serves production. In a bilingual/ multilingual classroom setting, projects such as a showcase in dual language. A project that is multiliteracyare encouraged to utilize translation as a bilingual/multilingual technique. There is sufficient evidence provided that allow practitioners in language on how reading can play part in the system of education. For instance from projects such as the Nation Translation Project which is a translation workshop in UK utilized in both primary and secondary schools and the Translators Juvenes which is an annual European translation contest for schools in Europe( Bazani, p. 49). Of course, bilingual/multilingual does not only enhance linguistic competence it entails multi-cultures. Individuals that are bilingual adapt to situations by choice of language and speakers so by code-switching. Therefore allowing pluricultural phenomenon where an individual crosses borders of culture using language. Social environments creates identities that are linguistic and such an environment is controlled by the person affected partially. There is often conflict in values of communication systems for instance conflict between linguistic minorities and majorities. However this does not determine how people use their repertories, in fact, it only applies if there is a change in perspective that target behavior modeling of speaker or hearers for a perspective that is interactive ( Lüdi, p. 19). Multilingual identify themselves by using bilingual speech as multilingual do not accept themselves despite producing more translinguistic's markers. Most immigrants when using the host country language are seen as losing their identity by fellow native speakers but to the host language speakers there regarded as gaining an identity. What matters in such a case is not the competence modification but rather the social meaning attributed to such changes. It is serve that bilingual speech makes a bilingual identity, but bilingual see such use of language an uncontrolled manifestation rather than a character definition ( Lüdi, p. 19). CONCLUSION In studies of culture, the idea of just one culture gets replaced by more effective and dynamic culture whose norms and culture are shaped by interactions with others( Lüdi). Bilingual speakers represent such vibrant cultures that amplify in their language use. The their different perspective of what culture a bilingual represent particularly in use of code-switching that allows in a conversation the use of more than one language. Some individuals acquire bilingual skills is to enhance proficiency communication in the tongue or language that surrounds them(Adendorff, 1996). To do so then the person must navigate a linguistic environment that is very complex. Further, bilingual allows learning to get easy especially for the children where they use previous information from L1 to understand aspects in L2( Bazani). In this paper we reviewed bilingual way of communicating, we looked at code switching as a strategy that helps bilingual contribute to the study of language. The paper further reviewed previous studies on bilingual and code shifting and finally, a consideration of various way bilingual studies enhance learning of languages and how such studies help in identity in a dynamic cultural environment. The study clearly shows that code switching is not a sign of deficiency or inadequacy but better yet tool for a speaker to negotiate between one language and another and to effectively communicate the intended message. In fact, the speaker intentionally applies code shifting as an effective strategy to get his or her message across. It is through code shifting that the speaker communicates what he wants to express how he wants. The paper clearly shows that the speaker does not only convey meanings that are referential of other words, but he speaks to achieve individual goals. They include express his culture or belief, insist on the importance of a message, to show how personal or impersonal his message is and sometimes just to show what language he has most fluency. Therefore the choice of language of a speaker if not just to show or express content choice but is an ongoing indication discourse. Communication is not about making a sentence no matter how well their formed or how beautiful a person’s say them. Knowledge and ability that goes beyond grammatical competence are required to decode messages especially the short isolated messages. We never automatically respond to what we hear as the speaker at the time wants to convey a message that is bit tactical and not automatically understood. The speaker and the participating must respond actively to what transpires by signaling involvement directly through words or indirectly through gestures. 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