Thursday, 23 March 2017

Bilingual Studies Contribution to Language Study

Bilingual Studies Contribution to Language Study Introduction The today society, culture is dynamic and incorporates the use of more than one language that is intercultural communication. Communication is a leader in a community that understands, that is intimate and has values. Therefore understanding the impact of such language use helps in understanding the language itself and the power it has in multicultural society. For instance, those that speak more than one language for instance bilinguals can switch code or even better mix their language during conversation thus enhancing intimacy and understanding. However, their grammatical rules when it comes to code-switching thus a speaker is not allowed to just point a discourse to switch from one language to the next. For instance, this is how one would switch from one language to another (Roberto, 1997, p. 36); (1) I want a car rouge. (rouge ‘red’) (2) I want a rouge car. (rouge ‘red’) The French word Rouge in the example above in English means Red. In the first sentence, the adjective “rouge” follows a bilingual speaker’s grammatical rule used during code switching. So if we use the rules governing the first sentence, it just means the second sentence is grammatically wrong. Language switching is only possible if the noun and the adjectives follow the rule of the adjective. In the example, the French grammatical rule is followed by the adjective in the sentence is French (Roberto, 1997, p. 36). (Adendorff, 1996, p. 390)Disagrees with a notion about code switching that indicates that a linguistic deficit in the comprehension in bilingual speakers is the switching of code. The study aiming to investigate the functions of code-switching occurring in a particular bilingual society is meaningful if switching of the code is a functional behavior. Culture has a significant role in language this is because cultural practices of an individual community profoundly relate to a language of a particular speech community thus culture and language most often influence each other. It is then true to say aspects of culture influence speaker’s language behaviors. There is a high correlation between language and cultural issues such that any small change in cultural aspect corresponds a language change so as to incorporate such cultural changes. That is why the purposes, functions of code choices and code-switching varies in different cultures, language communities, or in various social situations. The today global world calls for more than one language, for instance, the U.S lack of knowledge about foreign cultures and foreign languages and this threatens the security of the country, and it hinders the effort to compete in the international market. The U.S. education system has further inhibited the growth of language in their school systems as the system places little value on speaking other languages other than English or even understanding culture other than once own. The September 11, 2001, events compelled the federal government to realize the communication skills in the US were wanting, and there was the need to have more than one language use in school. It is very unrealistic for a government to focus only on national need alone. To strengthen the American businesses, to enhance the economy then it is crucial; to improve language skills and involve cultural expertise in the implementation process. Further, the government needs to build capacity to ensure schools can teach other languages (National Research Council, 2007, p. 1). Literature Review Research reveals that for bilingual speakers to achieve particular communication goal then code switching becomes a crucial tool. Therefore indicate that Code-switching is not in any way a deficit of language and in fact it is a sensitive measure of the abilities of bilingual as it proceeds from an area in the bilingual grammar where the surface structure of language one and style of language two overlap (Gumperz, 1982, p. 953).According to Pollack who attributes a variety of her functions to code switching, indicates that other factors such as age, sex, of a two language speaker contribute to the occurrence of code switching. Further, Gumperz looks at the code switching use in social functions. He reveals that there six primary function that code-switching plays in any conversation. They include Reiteration: It allows repetition of a message in other codes through clarification of what is said thus increasing perlocutionary utterance effect, Qualification of a message: Here using other systems preceding statements get elaborations. Also, include Specification of addresses: In this case, the code can select a particular address among many addresses and thus sending the message to the right address and Interjections: Here system switch is used to mark fillers. Further, allows Objectification vs. Personalization: Using contrast, the speaker level of involvement in what is said is shown using this function, and finally, Quotations: To report another person’s utterances code switching occur allowing direct quotes (Gumperz, 1982, p. 595). Another study done by Bialystok focuses on various communication strategies used by non-native speakers (NNSs). The plans include transliteration, language switching, and foreignzing native language. Strategies that have a basis in the target language and incorporate certain features that are unique to the intended code as the best strategies. Also, she looks at the best users of this strategy, and according to her the best users are those that have the proficiency that is formal and adequate in the language target and for purposes of conveyance of a particular concept can carry out strategic selection modification (Bialystok, 1983, p. 104). Some studies indicate that code switching is not so much of skill but is much of a problem a user faces while trying to communicate in a target language. The studies indicate that when a user faces problems in speech production, then such a user results to strategies of reduction or apply an achievement strategy. Some of the avoidance strategies include Formal reduction plan: Commonly used by users that intend to avoid non-fluent word production or simply just want to avoid incorrect utterance. The other avoidance strategy is Functional Reduction Strategy: Here the speaker of the language may just decide to change the message, he/ she may also choose to abandon the message. Also, the speaker can reduce the model and at times results in the reduction of propositional content. When it comes to avoiding a language by use of an achievement strategy the user is forced to get creative. Performance plan requires the user to expand his resource communication that uses compensatory strategy, which includes switch of code, interlanguage based strategies, transfer, restructuring, paraphrasing, word coinage, co-operative strategy and non-linguistic strategy (Bialystok, 1983, p. 112). To understand code switching, bilingual then it is crucial also to learn more about communication strategy. There is a difference between sociolinguistic competence and communication strategy. The study insists that communication strategies use is when there is a lack of scientific system thus a tool of compensation. Such strategies have disregard for the appropriateness of a situation as they allow the change in message transmission. On the other hand, sociolinguistic competence assumes the interlocutors share some knowledge. The study suggests the use of the following criteria for the purpose of communication strategy definition. The first thing is in communication is the desire to communicate, there is an assumption by the speaker that the sociolinguistic or linguistic structures are available. The speaker can decide not to communicate meaning X that is avoidance, or the speaker can choose an alternative message to deliver. The speaker wanting to take an alternative is okay as long as there no share meaning with the original meaning. Further studies indicate that speaker can make choices. The study utilizes the markedness model of code-switching that show that speakers of a language are well aware of social consequences of their decisions thus a speaker is allowed to consider the opportunities. The four motivation for the use of this model requires viewing code switching as a sequence of options not marked, as an option that allows exploration, as CS itself not marked or marked (POPLACK, 1980, p. 583). As much as early literature characterized code switching as random, most researchers now appear to agree that in many aspects it is governed by rules and the only problem is the lack of census on the precise nature of the rules involved. Moreover, the limitations that are intended are not general thus cannot allow an individual to ascribe to linguistic universals. The suggested code switching constraints which when combined are general enough to account for all instances of systems switching. The morpheme free restriction gets changed after a constituent in discourse as long as the constituent is not bond. Thus, it holds true for all linguistic levels but not the phonological (POPLACK, 1980, p. 615). Research is limited when it comes to showing the impact of code-switching on the development of bilingual children. However, recent studies revealed that children between the ages of 18-and-24 monthsdevelop smaller vocabulary due to parents’ code mixing. Also, children at an early age of 20 –months are indicating signs of understanding bilingual; such children have processing patterns like those of their parents. Thus, a strong indication that it is possible for code-mixing to start at a very tender age and a bilingual can cope with code mixing at that age. Further, as much as code mixing technique proves difficult to master it is bring fourth cognitive benefits in future (Byers-Heinlein, 2013). DISCUSSION Bilingual’s two languages support the connection between two words in that there is a neutral system in bilingual brains which allow both languages semantic processes. Therefore, it crucial; to understand that linguistic systems basis is similar conceptual system and a strong indication that the systems are not in a way independent from each other. Research suggest that a bilingual from a very young age learns to associate an appropriate language with a particular person. Further, due to the way the children understand and associate an appropriate language with a person they tend to enhance communication by acting as brokers of communication. As communication brokers’ children are keen not just to transmit the information but to ensure it is translated culturally. Other studies indicate that use bilingual to enhance and enrich themselves not just culturally but to achieve better communicative goals thus such a bilingual especially a child will seek translations for communicative need. Also. Take a lot of time to compare and build on their bilingual lexicon by translating to themselves and code-switching between themselves. It seems appropriate then to include strategies that young bilingual use to increase and enhance their competence in linguistics in language learning strategies that learners use in acquiring a second language( Bazani, p. 48). Using plurilingual approach code-switching can give students a chance to link varieties in linguistics simultaneously. Such a relationship gets regarded as a linguistic phenomenon it is possible to substitute a word or a phrase in another language, express a concept with no equivalent, or just clarify appoint in translation form through altering of language. Vocabulary learning is a cognitive task that can prove to challenge as it requires a lot of process loading, therefore, code-switching if used facilitates FL learning in that it reduces the processing easing learning. Further, the code switching ability to help in learning has psychological support where the perspective ascertains that code-switching does indeed send positive signs to a child. A child responds to his or her language and in a way is also able to enhance communication ( Bazani, p. 48). Lastly, to connect bilingualism to the field of Second Language Acquisition. Cognitive perspective suggests that across languages there is underlying proficiency in cognitive-academics that allow transfer of academic that is cognitive or skill that is literacy related from one language to at least 49 other languages (Cummins, 2007). Cumming hypothesis suggests that to transfer knowledge from one language to another then there is need to have prior experience where such knowledge matching with incoming information takes place. Meaning that prior knowledge is mediated through the L1 as long as prior knowledge gets encoded in the student L1. The principle does not in any way suggest that clear attempt to activate prior awareness of a student and insisting on building a background knowledge limits the L2 articulation, but it gives support that is sufficient and evidence that is theoretical in nature for the use of both L2 and L1 (Cummins, 2007). Practically as per research it is possible to implement L1 activities in the teaching of L2 plans, thus allowing language teachers practical examples. In a multilingual classroom translation is included in bilingual/multilingual activities where phrase books that are bilingual are used, and also resources that are audiovisual as well as contrasting, reading and even bilingual poems, drama, stories, and emails and serves production. In a bilingual/ multilingual classroom setting, projects such as a showcase in dual language. A project that is multiliteracyare encouraged to utilize translation as a bilingual/multilingual technique. There is sufficient evidence provided that allow practitioners in language on how reading can play part in the system of education. For instance from projects such as the Nation Translation Project which is a translation workshop in UK utilized in both primary and secondary schools and the Translators Juvenes which is an annual European translation contest for schools in Europe( Bazani, p. 49). Of course, bilingual/multilingual does not only enhance linguistic competence it entails multi-cultures. Individuals that are bilingual adapt to situations by choice of language and speakers so by code-switching. Therefore allowing pluricultural phenomenon where an individual crosses borders of culture using language. Social environments creates identities that are linguistic and such an environment is controlled by the person affected partially. There is often conflict in values of communication systems for instance conflict between linguistic minorities and majorities. However this does not determine how people use their repertories, in fact, it only applies if there is a change in perspective that target behavior modeling of speaker or hearers for a perspective that is interactive ( Lüdi, p. 19). Multilingual identify themselves by using bilingual speech as multilingual do not accept themselves despite producing more translinguistic's markers. Most immigrants when using the host country language are seen as losing their identity by fellow native speakers but to the host language speakers there regarded as gaining an identity. What matters in such a case is not the competence modification but rather the social meaning attributed to such changes. It is serve that bilingual speech makes a bilingual identity, but bilingual see such use of language an uncontrolled manifestation rather than a character definition ( Lüdi, p. 19). CONCLUSION In studies of culture, the idea of just one culture gets replaced by more effective and dynamic culture whose norms and culture are shaped by interactions with others( Lüdi). Bilingual speakers represent such vibrant cultures that amplify in their language use. The their different perspective of what culture a bilingual represent particularly in use of code-switching that allows in a conversation the use of more than one language. Some individuals acquire bilingual skills is to enhance proficiency communication in the tongue or language that surrounds them(Adendorff, 1996). To do so then the person must navigate a linguistic environment that is very complex. Further, bilingual allows learning to get easy especially for the children where they use previous information from L1 to understand aspects in L2( Bazani). In this paper we reviewed bilingual way of communicating, we looked at code switching as a strategy that helps bilingual contribute to the study of language. The paper further reviewed previous studies on bilingual and code shifting and finally, a consideration of various way bilingual studies enhance learning of languages and how such studies help in identity in a dynamic cultural environment. The study clearly shows that code switching is not a sign of deficiency or inadequacy but better yet tool for a speaker to negotiate between one language and another and to effectively communicate the intended message. In fact, the speaker intentionally applies code shifting as an effective strategy to get his or her message across. It is through code shifting that the speaker communicates what he wants to express how he wants. The paper clearly shows that the speaker does not only convey meanings that are referential of other words, but he speaks to achieve individual goals. They include express his culture or belief, insist on the importance of a message, to show how personal or impersonal his message is and sometimes just to show what language he has most fluency. Therefore the choice of language of a speaker if not just to show or express content choice but is an ongoing indication discourse. Communication is not about making a sentence no matter how well their formed or how beautiful a person’s say them. Knowledge and ability that goes beyond grammatical competence are required to decode messages especially the short isolated messages. We never automatically respond to what we hear as the speaker at the time wants to convey a message that is bit tactical and not automatically understood. The speaker and the participating must respond actively to what transpires by signaling involvement directly through words or indirectly through gestures. However, the response must relate to what we think the speaker want to hear rather than what it means (POPLACK, 1980, p. 615). References Adendorff, R. (1996). The functions of code-switching among high school teachers and. In K. Biley , & D. Nunan (Eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from Ariffin, K., & Rafik-Galea, S. (2009). Code-switching as a Communication Device in Conversation. Retrieved February 27, 2017, from Bazani, A. (n.d.). Translation in the Foreign Language Teaching of the Twenty First Century: A Game of ‘Hide-and-Seek’? Retrieved from Bialystok, E. (1983). Some factors in the selection and implementation of communication strategies. (I. C. Kasper, Ed.) Strategies in interlanguage communication, pp. 100-118. Retrieved from Byers-Heinlein, K. (2013). Philopophical Transactions of the Royal Society. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0105 Cummins, J. (2007). Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms. (C. J. Linguistics, Ed.) 10(2), 221-240. Retrieved from Gumperz, J. (1982). Discourse Strategies (Vol. 60). CUP: Cambridge. doi: 10.2307/413810 Lüdi, G. (n.d.). Multilingual repertoires and the consequences for linguistic theory1. Retrieved from Myers-Scotton, C. (1983). International journal of the sociology of language. (I. (. 1613-3668, Ed.) 1983(44), 115-156. doi: National Research Council. (2007). International Education and Foreign Languages. Retrieved from,+Center+for+Education+(2007):+International+Education+and+Foreign+Languages:+Keys+to+Securing+America%27s+Future.&source=bl&ots=---O5lmP2_&sig=NSFT9a6sIth5PGD POPLACK, S. (1980). Sometimes I'H start a sentence in Spanish Y TERMINOEl\fESPANOL. toward a typology of code-switching , 583. Retrieved from Roberto, H. R. (1997). Bilingual Memory and Hierarchical Models. A Case Study for Language Dominance, 6, 36. Retrieved from

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