Monday, 6 May 2019

What makes something a security Issue?

What makes something a security Issue? The paper will discuss what security, security issues, and the security types are and will concentrate on the article titled mass migration threatens Britain’s National Security by John Reid. John Reid states that the internet and mass migration continue to remain a threat to national security in Britain (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 8). The essay will focus on migration as a security issue by posing the question “can immigration be considered as a security issue in Britain?” It will use the securitization, block power theory, and gender analysis theory to answer the question and analyze the issue. Observers noticed that the security concept had limited reflection compared to the manner in which it had been utilized in the mid-1980s and the term widened the security agenda. One of the models was to shift from state security to people security. Individual security can be impacted in various ways, including environmental concern, political rights, cultural identity, and economic welfare. The Jan Oberg and Johan Galtung framework concentrate on 4 positive objectives such as identity, freedom, development, and survival. The framework security is viewed as a combined defense policy for every group and the totality of the defense endeavors the whole human-community organization. However, currently, reflection on the security concept remains common as explored by (4.1 Week 23, page. 27). The framework focuses on security at the individual level and they connect security to the 4 objectives generated from a personal level. People require different needs that can be affected by threats, making everything a potential security issue. As a result, the approach is faced by different issues, including making security inclusive, hence an emptied content, inadequate attention to the classical security connotative making it a contributor securitization expansion and reproduction and it lacks the political impact of security. Therefore, it remains critical to accept that security is impacted by dynamics at a personal level as well as international systems. More so, security must include threats, defense, and vulnerabilities as discussed by (4.1 Week 23, page. 27) Some of the security threats that threaten people and nations include internet or cyber threats, mass migration, climate change, political and crime such as drug trafficking (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 4). Some of the theories associated with security include the securitization theory, feminist theory, and block power theory. The balance of power theory concentrates on security dilemmas, military threats and abilities and domination of the global systems as well as great powers competitions (Week 23, Audio 5a challenges transcript, page.13). More so, the feminism theory concentrates on the manner in which gender impacts global relations, effects in universal processes on females and viewing females in a manner they are not in gender blind methods to global relations (Week 23, Audio 5a challenges transcript, page.15). Securitization happens when a securitizing actor predicts existential danger to a subject such as a person or nation to the desired audience by trying to justify the extraordinary actions/measures (Week 23, Audio 5a challenges transcript, page.14). Securitization Theory Ole Weaver discusses the securitization theory and states that it remains a security theory and has been utilized in various others such as conducting local research. The theory possesses an automatic upper hand in comparison to other theories. The theory remains open empirically to allow the reality to discover the people with the ability to securitize because it possesses a natural power in cases where the territory remains at stake. Security theory can assist in studying the manner in which various securitizing actors desire to make distinct referent object the major focus; concentrate on various threats and distinct extraordinary measures. For instance, the theory can assist in the rise if China can be viewed as an adverse issue in global relations theoretically and in practice. However, the issue remains a securitization theory problem because the theory can address the issue. The securitization theory assists in obtaining a linear idea and then assist in developing the necessary actions (Theory Bites Video 5 Transcript (1), page, 2-4). In the article, mass migration threatens Britain's National Security by John Reid, internet and mass migration continue to remain a threat to the national security in Britain (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 8). Using the securitization theory, John Reid has securitized mass migration in Britain and considers it a security threat to national security in Britain. The speaker includes Jef Huysmans and Et cetera and they have analyzed the article. John Reid believes that the migration in Britain poses a threat to the national security and the relevant audiences include the community, Britain, immigrants’ states, government and individuals who may be affected by the migration (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 8). In the 1980s, 190s, and in the twenty-first century, the European Union Securitized migration and it became an insecurity matter. The European Union developed border control regimes at the external territories and eliminated the international territory control. As a result, Frontex was established in the year 2004 and remains the external territory control organization in the European Union. The organization also controls the south and provides surveillance to the West Africa coasts with the aim of preventing the immigrants from entering Europe. Jerry Beebach and Mike King have created an unmanned plane with the aim of locating the migrants who try to cross the US. (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 8). Some of the dangers associated with mass migration include increased crime and internal security threats (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 8). Jef Huysmans states that the measures employed by the European Union remain an extraordinary way of mentioning borders and preventing immigrants from entering the states. Border controls in states are done by the officials and not the citizens and citizens performing the birder control activities view themselves as defending the US borders and it can be perceived as extraordinary (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 10). Securisation major approach entails desecuritization which includes maintaining problems outside the security policy (Week 23: Audio 5b transcript: Roundtable – political choices, page. 19). Jef Huysmans desecuritizes migration remains a trade, tourism and labor subject and it should not be viewed as a security issue. Migration has permitted trade and tourism activities which remain a source of income for a given state. More so, it has permitted migrants to travel to the nations in search of a job and has allowed industries to hire unskilled and skilled laborers to work in their companies resulting in economic growth (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 10). The min interest of the securitization approach includes desecuritization which refers to maintaining problems out of the security policy. In securitization technique, violence does not remain a constitution tool in global politics and the international politics must try to eliminate it. Securitization assist in gaining insight on the manner in which to move from security legislation viewed as the least coercive or violent, to the development of a conflict culture that remain non-violent (Audio 5b transcript: Roundtable – political choices, Page 19). Balance of Power The balance of power theory concentrates on security dilemmas. Military threats and abilities and domination of the global systems as well as great powers competitions (Week 23, Audio 5a challenges transcript, page.13) Mass migration affects the power of various nations in the global system because Jerry Beebach and Mike King have created unmanned plane with the aim of locating the migrants who try to cross the US while Frontex remains the external territory control organization in the European Union and controls the south and provides surveillance to the West Africa coasts with the aim of preventing the immigrants from entering Europe (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 7). However, politics in the two great powers continue to impact their efforts to develop measures to control migration. In the US, immigration policies are based on racial discrimination directed to the black communities. In Europe, the policies to address the migrations remain challenging at the external borders and within the nation. The mass migration impacts the role of the great powers in the global system in connection to sustaining the universal order because the measures employed by the European Union and the US can be viewed as an extraordinary way of monitoring borders and preventing immigrants from entering the nations. Border controls in states are done by the officials and not the citizens (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 9). Therefore, the states must develop policies that can overcome the mass immigration without any bias and must include their citizens in fighting the threat. The increasing threat and the current policies as well as measures can introduce more challenges to the great powers in the fight against the mass migration and can add additional pressure on military forces. Other indirect impacts that mass migration can have on the great powers include inadequate labor to work in the industries because migrants provide the nations with manpower to work in various sectors such as the construction sector resulting in economic trade. More so, preventing migration can impact international trade because people will be restricted to travel or migrate to those states which can impact the economic growth of the nations. Additionally, the restrictions may influence tourism negatively and the tourism sector may experience minimized revenues. Balance of power advocates for a realistic perspective of violence which remain present in the society and that it remains destructive. For the nations to organize violence and in the current globe, it must monopolize violence and coercive force within a certain territory. As a result, nations will be able to protect themselves from attackers making it one of the political legitimacy features that aim at guaranteeing the population’s security. In the current globe of different countries, the balance of power provides power balance between nations, hence eradicating and limiting the damaging impact of military violence (Week 23, Audio 5a challenges transcript, page.13) Comparison From the analysis, the securitization theory seems appropriate in analyzing the issue of mass migration in Britain. Securitization happens when a securitizing actor predicts existential danger to a subject such as a person or nation to the desired audience by trying to justify the extraordinary actions/measures (Week 23, Audio 5a challenges transcript, page.14). Using the securitization theory, John Reid has securitized mass migration in Britain and considers it a security threat to national security in Britain. Jef Huysmans states that the measures employed by the European Union remain an extraordinary way of mentioning borders and preventing immigrants from entering the states. Jef Huysmans desecuritizes migration remains a trade, tourism and labor subject and it should not be viewed as a security issue. Migration has permitted trade and tourism activities which remain a source of income for a given state. More so, it has permitted migrants to travel to the nations in search of a job and has allowed industries to hire unskilled and skilled laborers to work in their companies resulting in economic growth (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 8-10). The balance of power theory concentrates on security dilemmas (Week 23, Audio 5a challenges transcript, page.13). Therefore, mass migration affects the power of various nations in the global system because politics in the two great powers continue to impact their efforts to develop measures to control migration. In the US, immigration policies are based on racial discrimination directed to the black communities. In Europe, the policies to address the migrations remain challenging at the external borders and within the nation. The mass migration impacts the role of the great powers in the global system in connection to sustaining the universal order because the measures employed by the European Union and the US can be viewed as an extraordinary way of monitoring borders and preventing immigrants from entering the nations. Indirect impacts that mass migration can have on the great powers include inadequate labor to work in the industries, preventing migration can impact international trade and the restrictions may influence tourism negatively (Video Lecture Transcript by Jef Huysman, page, 9). However, the theory fails to consider desecuritisation of the threat which remains critical while analyzing the threat. In conclusion, the essay discussed security, security issues, and the security types and concentrated on the article titled “mass migration threatens Britain’s National Security” by John Reid. John Reid states that internet and mass migration continue to remain a threat to national security in Britain. The essay focused on migration as a security issue by posing the question “can immigration be considered as a security issue in Britain?” It used the securitization, block power theory, and gender analysis theory to answer the question and analyze the issue. Using the securitization theory, John Reid has securitized mass migration in Britain and considers it a security threat to national security in Britain Jef Huysmans desecuritizes migration remains a trade, tourism and labor subject and it should not be viewed as a security issue. The mass migration affects the power of various nations in the global system because politics in the two great powers continue to impact their efforts to develop measures to control migration. The mass migration impacts the role of the great powers in the global system in connection to sustaining the universal order. However, the theory fails to consider desecuritization of the threat which remains critical while analyzing the threat. The paper concludes the securitization theory remains the most significant theory to analyze and answer the question because it considers all the aspects of the threat. Works Cited Huysman, Jef. Video Lecture Transcript. n.d. 30 March 2019. Unknown Author. Security: The Concept and the Word. N.d. 30 March 2019. —. Week 23, Audio 5a challenges transcript. n.d. 20 March 2018. —. Week 23: Audio 5b transcript: Roundtable – political choices. n.d. 30 March 2019. __. 4.1 Week 23. n.d. 30 March 2019 Waever, Ole. Theory Bites Video 5 Transcript (1). n.d. 30 March 2019.

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